Votrient - Product Information
|Condition:||Cancer, Kidney Cancer (Renal Cell Carcinoma), Sarcoma botryoides (Soft Tissue Sarcoma)|
|Ingredients:||pazopanib hydrochloride, microcrystalline cellulose, povidone, sodium starch glycolate, magnesium stearate, hypromellose, titanium dioxide, macrogol/PEG400, polysorbate 80 and iron oxide red E172 (200 mg tablets only)|
Severe and fatal hepatotoxicity has been observed in clinical studies. Monitor hepatic function and interrupt, reduce, or discontinue dosing as recommended.[See PRECAUTIONS.]
Name of the Medicine
VOTRIENT® (Pazopanib hydrochloride)
Pazopanib is a member of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor family. It is supplied as the hydrochloride salt, with chemical name 5-[[4-[(2,3-dimethyl-2H-indazol-6-yl)methylamino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-2-methylbenzenesulfonamide monohydrochloride.
The structural formula is:
Molecular formula: C21H23N7O2S•HCl
Molecular weight: 473.99 g/mol.
CAS number: 635702-64-6
BCS Classification: Class II (High Permeability, Low Solubility)
Pazopanib hydrochloride is a white to slightly yellow solid. It is very slightly soluble at pH 1 and practically insoluble above pH 4 in aqueous media. Two basic ionisation constants (pKa) of pazopanib free base were determined to be 6.4 and 2.1, and one weakly acidic pKa was determined to be 10.2. The partition coefficient of the free base between octanol and water is 4470 (cLogP = 3.65). The pH of a 0.04% w/v solution of pazopanib hydrochloride in water is about 2.2.
VOTRIENT is supplied for oral administration in two strengths: 200 and 400 mg film-coated tablets. Each film-coated tablet contains pazopanib hydrochloride equivalent to either 200 mg or 400 mg of pazopanib free base and the following inactive ingredients: magnesium stearate, cellulose - microcrystalline, povidone, sodium starch glycollate, hypromellose, macrogol 400, titanium dioxide, polysorbate 80, and iron oxide red CI77491 (200 mg tablet only).
Mechanism of Action
Pazopanib is an orally administered, potent multi-target tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptors (VEGFR)-1, -2, and -3, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGFR)-α and –β, and stem cell factor receptor (c-KIT), with IC50 values of 10, 30, 47, 71, 84 and 74 nM, respectively. Pazopanib also inhibited ligand-induced auto-phosphorylation of VEGFR-2, c-Kit and PDGFR-β receptors in cells in vitro. In vivo, pazopanib inhibited VEGF-induced VEGFR-2 phosphorylation in mouse lungs, angiogenesis in mouse models, and the growth of some human tumour xenografts in mice.
The pharmacokinetics of pazopanib have been evaluated in 408 patients. The reported pharmacokinetic parameters such as absolute bioavailability and clearance were obtained from only three patients.
Pazopanib is absorbed orally with an absolute oral bioavailability of 13.5 – 38.9 % and median time to achieve peak concentrations of 2.0 to 4.0 hours after the dose. Daily dosing results in 1.23- to 4-fold increase in AUC. There was no consistent increase in AUC and Cmax when the pazopanib dose increased above 800 mg.
Systemic exposure to pazopanib is increased when administered with food. Administration of pazopanib with a high-fat or low-fat meal results in an approximately 2-fold increase in AUC and Cmax. Therefore, pazopanib should be administered at least 1 hour before or 2 hours after a meal (see Dosage and Administration).
Administration of a single pazopanib 400 mg crushed tablet increased AUC(0-72) by 46% and Cmax by approximately 2 fold and decreased tmax by approximately 1.5 hours compared to administration of the whole tablet. These results indicate that the bioavailability and the rate of pazopanib oral absorption are increased after administration of the crushed tablet relative to administration of the whole tablet. Therefore, due to this potential for increased exposure, tablets should not be crushed (see Dosage and Administration).
Binding of pazopanib to human plasma protein in vivo was greater than 99 % with no concentration dependence over the range of 10-100 µg/ml. After 5 mg IV administration, pazopanib displayed a volume of distribution of 9.2 – 13.1 L (< 40 % of total body water). In vitro studies suggest that pazopanib is a substrate for P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and breast cancer resistant protein (BCRP).
Results from in vitro studies demonstrated that the metabolism of pazopanib is mediated primarily by CYP3A4, with minor contributions from CYP1A2 and CYP2C8.
Pazopanib is eliminated slowly with mean half-life of 30.9 hours after administration of the recommended dose of 800 mg. Elimination is primarily via faeces with renal elimination accounting for < 4 % of the administered dose. Pazopanib plasma clearance after a 5 mg IV dose ranged from 0.206 to 0.347 L/h (approximately 0.5% of liver blood flow and 5% of glomerular filtration rate).
In a population pharmacokinetic analysis using 408 patients with various cancers, creatinine clearance (30-150 ml/min) did not influence clearance of pazopanib. Renal impairment is not expected to influence pazopanib exposure, and dose adjustment is not necessary in patients with creatine clearance ≥ 30 ml/min.
The median steady-state pazopanib Cmax and AUC(0-24) in patients with mild hepatic impairment (defined as either normal bilirubin and any degree of alanine transaminase [ALT] elevations or as an elevation of bilirubin up to 1.5 times the upper limit of normal [x ULN] regardless of the ALT value) after a once daily dose of 800 mg/day (30.9 µg/ml, range 12.5-47.3 and 841.8 µg.hr/ml, range 600.4-1078) are similar to the median in patients with no hepatic impairment (49.4 µg/ml, range 17.1-85.7 and 888.2 µg.hr/ml, range 345.5-1482) (see Dosage and Administration).
The maximally tolerated pazopanib dose (MTD) in patients with moderate hepatic impairment (defined as an elevation of bilirubin > 1.5 x to 3 x ULN regardless of the ALT values) was 200 mg once daily. The median steady-state values of Cmax (22.4 µg/ml, range 6.4-32.9) and AUC(0-24) (350.0 µg.hr/ml, range 131.8-487.7) after administration of 200 mg pazopanib once daily in patients with moderate hepatic impairment were approximately 45 % and 39 %, respectively, that of the corresponding median values after administration of 800 mg once daily in patients with normal hepatic function (see Dosage and Administration).
There are insufficient data in patients with severe hepatic impairment (total bilirubin > 3 x ULN regardless of any level of ALT); therefore, use of pazopanib is not recommended in these patients.
Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC)
The safety and efficacy of VOTRIENT in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) were evaluated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multi-centre study. Patients (N= 435) with locally advanced and/or metastatic RCC were randomized to receive VOTRIENT 800 mg monotherapy once daily or placebo. The primary objective of the study was to evaluate and compare the two treatment arms for progression-free survival (PFS) and the principle secondary endpoint is overall survival (OS). The other objectives were to evaluate the overall response rate and duration of response.
From the total of 435 patients in this study, 233 patients were treatment naïve and 202 were second line patients who received one prior IL-2 or INFα-based therapy. The performance status (ECOG) was similar between the VOTRIENT and placebo groups (ECOG 0: 42 % vs. 41 %, ECOG 1: 58 % vs. 59 %). All patients had clear cell histology or predominantly clear cell histology. Approximately half of all patients had 3 or more organs involved in their disease and most patients had the lung (74 %), and/or lymph nodes (54 %) as a metastatic location for disease at baseline.
A similar proportion of patients in each arm were treatment-naïve and cytokine-pre-treated (53 % and 47 % in VOTRIENT arm, 54 % and 46 % in placebo arm). In the cytokine-pre-treated subgroup, the majority (75 %) had received interferon based treatment.
Similar proportions of patients in each arm had prior nephrectomy (89 % and 88 % in the VOTRIENT and placebo arms, respectively) and/or prior radiotherapy (22 % and 15 % in the VOTRIENT and placebo arms, respectively.
The primary analysis of the primary endpoint PFS is based on disease assessment by independent radiological review in the entire study population (first line and second line).
Table 1. Overall Efficacy Results in RCC by Independent Review Committee (IRC) (VEG105192)
|Endpoints/ Study population||VOTRIENT||Placebo||HR (95% CI)||P value (one-sided)|
|Overall ITT||N=290 9,2||N=145 4,2||0.46 (0.34, 0.62)||<0.0000001|
|Treatment-naїve||N=155 11,1||N=78 2,8||0.40 (0.27, 0.60)||<0.0000001|
|Cytokine pre-treated||N=135 7,4||N=67 4,2||0.54 (0.35, 0.84)||<0.001|
|Response rate||% (95% CI)||-||<0.001|
|Overall||N=290 30 (25.1 ,35.6)||N=145 3 (0.5, 6.4)|
CI: confidence interval; HR: hazard ratio; ITT: Intent-to-treat; PFS: progression free survival.
Figure 1 Kaplan-Meier Curve for Progression-Free Survival by Independent Assessment for the Overall Population (Treatment-Naïve and Cytokine Pre-Treated Populations)
Figure 2 Kaplan-Meier Curve for Progression-Free Survival by Independent Assessment for the Treatment-Naïve Population
Figure 3 Kaplan-Meier Curve for Progression-Free Survival by Independent Assessment for the Cytokine Pre-Treated Population
For patients who responded to treatment, the median time to response was 11.9 weeks and the median duration of response was 58.7 weeks as per independent review.
The median overall survival (OS) data at the protocol specified final survival analysis were 22.9 months and 20.5 months [HR = 0.91 (95 % CI: 0.71, 1.16; p = 0.224)] for patients randomized to the VOTRIENT and placebo arms, respectively. The OS results are subject to potential bias as 54 % of patients in the placebo arm also received VOTRIENT in the extension part of this study following disease progression. Sixty-six percent of placebo patients received post-study therapy compared to 30 % of VOTRIENT patients.
In the pivotal study, the QoL assessments were based on blinded self-reported global scores from two protocol-specified questionnaires, EORTC QLQ-C30 and EuroQoL EQ-5D. Analysis was based on patients who continued on therapy in both arms, prior to progression. The assessments showed no difference between treatment with VOTRIENT or placebo (p > 0.05), indicating no negative impact of VOTRIENT on global quality of life.
In a Phase 2 study of 225 patients with locally recurrent or metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma, objective response rate was 35 % and median duration of response was 68 weeks, as per independent review. Median PFS was 11.9 months.
The safety, efficacy and quality of life of VOTRIENT versus sunitinib have been evaluated in a randomised, open-label, parallel group Phase III non-inferiority study in patients with metastatic or locally advanced renal cell carcinoma (VEG108844& VEG113078).
In VEG108844, patients (N = 1110) with locally advanced and/or metastatic RCC who had not received prior systemic therapy, were randomized to receive either VOTRIENT 800 mg once-daily ongoing treatment, or sunitinib 50 mg once-daily in 6-week cycles of dosing with 4 weeks on treatment followed by 2 weeks without treatment.
The primary objective of this study was to evaluate and compare PFS in patients treated with VOTRIENT to those treated with sunitinib. Demographic characteristics were similar between the treatment arms. Disease characteristics at initial diagnosis and at screening were balanced between the treatment arms. The majority of patients had stage IV disease at screening.
VEG108844 achieved its primary endpoint of PFS and demonstrated that VOTRIENT was non-inferior to sunitinib, as the upper bound of the 95 % CI for the hazard ratio was less than the protocol-specified non-inferiority margin of 1.25. Overall efficacy results are summarised in Table 2.
Table 2: Overall efficacy results (VEG108844)
|Endpoint||VOTRIENT N=557||Sunitinib N=553||Adjusted HR a (95 % CI)|
|Median (months) (95 % CI)||8,4 (8.3, 10.9)||9,5 (8.3, 11.1)|
|Median (months) (95 % CI)||28,4 (26.2, 35.6)||29,3 (25.3, 32.5)|
|0.908 b (0.762, 1.082)|
HR = Hazard Ratio; ITT = Intent to Treat; PFS = Progression-free Survival based on independent review committee (IRC) assessment
a Hazard Ratio (HR) is adjusted for Karnofsky Performance Scale (70 or 80, 90 or 100), prior nephrectomy (Yes, No), and baseline levels of lactate dehydrogenase (≤1.5xULN, >1.5xULN).
b P value = 0.275 (2-sided)
In VEG108844, health-related QoL was assessed using the following patient-reported questionnaires: Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy–Fatigue (FACIT-F), 19-item Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy Kidney Symptom Index (FKSI-19), Cancer Therapy Satisfaction Questionnaire (CTSQ), and Supplementary Quality of Life Questionnaire (SQLQ). Overall compliance with SQLQ was 86%. Statistically significant differences in 11 of the 14 total domains favoured Votrient over sunitinib (p<0.05) reflecting the adverse effects profile. The differences in fatigue, mouth/throat and hand/foot soreness and their limitations, feelings about sides effects and satisfaction with therapy were considered likely to be important (effect size >0.20).
Soft Tissue Sarcoma (STS)
The safety and efficacy of pazopanib in STS were evaluated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multi-centre trial. Patients (N= 369) with advanced STS who had received prior chemotherapy, including anthracycline treatment, or who were intolerant to therapy, were randomized to receive pazopanib 800 mg once daily or placebo.
More common tumour types studied were leiomyosarcoma (excluding skin) and synovial sarcoma. Patients with various rare STS types were analysed collectively in an “Other STS” subgroup. STS types ineligible for study included: adipocytic STS; gastrointestinal stromal tumour; rhabdomyosarcoma other than alveolar or pleomorphic; chondrosarcoma; osteosarcoma; Ewings tumour/primitive neuroectodermal tumour; dermofibromatosis sarcoma protuberans; inflammatory myofibroblastic sarcoma; malignant mesothelioma; and mixed mesodermal tumour of the uterus.
Patients with WHO performance status >1 (i.e. unable to carry out light work) were excluded from enrolment. Patients with inadequate bone marrow, renal or liver function were excluded. Patients with abnormal cardiac function (LV ejection fraction below institutional lower limit of normal; QTc prolongation >480 msecs; presence within the last 6 months of cardiac angioplasty or stenting, myocardial infarction, unstable angina, coronary artery bypass graft surgery, symptomatic peripheral vascular disease, or NYHA Class III-IV congestive heart failure) and patients with poorly controlled hypertension were excluded. Patients with any history of a cerebrovascular accident, or with a transient ischaemic attack within the last 6 months, or with a pulmonary embolus within the last 6 months, were excluded. Patients with a history of clinically significant gastrointestinal disorders were excluded. Patients with a bleeding diathesis, active bleeding or haemoptysis within the last 6 weeks were also excluded.
Prior to randomization, eligible patients were stratified by the factors of WHO performance status (WHO PS) (0 or 1) at baseline and the number of lines of prior systemic therapy for advanced disease (0 or 1 vs. 2+). In each treatment group, there was a slightly greater percentage of patients in the 2+ lines of prior systemic therapy for advanced disease (58 % and 55 % respectively for placebo and pazopanib treatment arms) compared with 0 or 1 lines of prior systemic therapy (42 % and 45 % respectively for placebo and pazopanib treatment arms). There were slightly more patients with a WHO PS of 1 at baseline. The median duration of follow-up of patients (defined as date of randomization to date of last contact or death) was similar for both treatment arms (9.36 months for placebo [range 0.69 to 23.0 months] and 10.04 months for pazopanib [range 0.2 to 24.3 months].
The primary objective of the trial was to evaluate and compare the two treatment arms for progression-free survival (PFS); the secondary endpoints included overall survival (OS), overall response rate and duration of response.
The initial analysis of the primary endpoint PFS was based on disease assessment by independent radiological review in the entire ITT study population.
Table 3: Overall efficacy results in STS by independent assessment (VEG110727)
|Endpoints / study population||VOTRIENT||Placebo||HR (95% CI)||P value (one-sided)|
|Overall ITT||N = 246||N = 123|
|Median (weeks)||20||7||0.35 (0.26, 0.48)||< 0.001|
|Leiomyosarcoma||N = 109||N = 49|
|Median (weeks)||20.1||8.1||0.37 (0.23, 0.60)||< 0.001|
|Synovial sarcoma subgroups||N = 25||N = 13|
|Median (weeks)||17.9||4.1||0.43 (0.19, 0.98)||0.005|
|‘Other STS’ subgroups||N = 112||N = 61|
|Median (weeks)||20.1||4.3||0.39 (0.25, 0.60)||< 0.001|
|Response Rate (CR+PR)|
|% (95 % CI)||4 (2.3, 7.9)||0 (0.0, 3.0)|
|Duration of response|
|Median (weeks) (95 % CI)||38.9 (16.7, 40.0)|
HR = Hazard ratio; ITT = Intent to treat; PFS = Progression-free survival; CR = Complete Response; PR = Partial Response.
Similar to the assessments by independent radiology review, a clinically meaningful and statistically significant improvement in PFS based on investigator assessments was observed in the pazopanib arm compared with the placebo arm (HR: 0.39; 95 % CI, 0.30 to 0.52, p < 0.001).
Figure 4: Kaplan-Meier Curve for Progression-Free Survival in STS by Independent Assessment for the Overall Population (VEG110727)
The hazard ratio at the pre-specified interim analysis for overall survival in favour of pazopanib was not statistically significant; the median overall survival in the placebo arm was 10.4 months (95 % CI 8.7 to 12.7) and was 11.9 months (95 % CI 10.7 to 15.1) in the pazopanib arm; HR = 0.82 (97.87 % CI: 0.59 to 1.14, p = 0.156). The overall survival in this study is potentially confounded due an imbalance of active treatments after disease progression, with more patients in the placebo arm receiving active therapy.
Changes in quality of life were assessed for up to 12 weeks on treatment. Scores for the individual domains of fatigue, diarrhoea, loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting were worse for pazopanib, reflecting the adverse effects profile. However, this was not reflected in global quality of life assessment. Comparison was hindered by the small number of assessments, dropout of subjects due to disease progression (particularly in the placebo arm), and the absence of health outcome assessments after disease progression.
In a smaller, uncontrolled Phase 2 study of pazopanib in STS (VEG20002), median progression-free survival was 11.1 weeks in adipocytic STS and 14.0-23.4 weeks in other STS groups, although fewer adipocytic STS subjects were studied (n=19 vs n=37-41 in other groups).
VOTRIENT is indicated for the treatment of advanced and/or metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC).
VOTRIENT is indicated for the treatment of advanced (unresectable and/or metastatic) soft tissue sarcoma (STS) in patients who, unless otherwise contraindicated, have received prior chemotherapy including an anthracycline treatment.
The Phase III trial population excluded patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) or adipocytic soft tissue sarcoma.
VOTRIENT is contraindicated in patients with hypersensitivity to the active substance pazopanib hydrochloride or to any of the excipients (see DESCRIPTION).
Hepatic Effects: Cases of hepatic failure (including fatalities) have been reported during use of VOTRIENT. In clinical trials with VOTRIENT, increase in serum transaminases (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase [AST]) and bilirubin were observed (see Adverse Effects). In the majority of the cases, isolated increases in ALT and AST have been reported, without concomitant elevations of alkaline phosphatase or bilirubin. Patients over 60 years of age may be at greater risk for ALT >3 X ULN. The vast majority (92.5%) of all transaminase elevations of any grade occurred in the first 18 weeks. Grades are based on the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, Version 3 (NCI CTCAE).
Monitor serum liver tests before initiation of treatment with VOTRIENT, and at weeks 3, 5, 7 and 9. Thereafter monitor at month 3 and at month 4, and as clinically indicated. Periodic monitoring should then continue after month 4.
The following guidelines are provided for patients with baseline values of total bilirubin ≤ 1.5 x ULN and AST and ALT ≤ 2 x ULN.
• Patients with isolated ALT elevations between 3 x ULN and 8 X ULN may be continued on VOTRIENT with weekly monitoring of liver function until ALT returns to Grade 1 (NCI CTCAE) or baseline.
• Patients with ALT of > 8 X ULN should have VOTRIENT interrupted until they return to Grade 1 (NCI CTCAE) or baseline. If the potential benefit for reinitiating VOTRIENT treatment is considered to outweigh the risk for hepatotoxicity, then reintroduce VOTRIENT at a reduced dose (400 mg daily) and measure serum liver tests weekly for 8 weeks (see Dosage and Administration)]. Following reintroduction of VOTRIENT, if transaminase elevations > 3 X ULN recur, then VOTRIENT should be permanently discontinued.
• If ALT elevations > 3 X ULN occur concurrently with bilirubin elevations > 2 X ULN, VOTRIENT should be permanently discontinued. Patients should be monitored until return to Grade 1 (NCI CTCAE) or baseline. VOTRIENT is a UGT1A1 inhibitor. Mild, indirect (unconjugated) hyperbilirubinaemia may occur in patients with Gilbert’s syndrome. Patients with only a mild indirect hyperbilirubinaemia, known or suspected Gilbert’s syndrome, and elevation in ALT > 3 x ULN should be managed as per the recommendations outlined for isolated ALT elevations.
Concomitant use of pazopanib and simvastatin increases the risk of ALT elevations (see Interactions with other medicines) and should be undertaken with caution and close monitoring.
Beyond recommending that patients with mild hepatic impairment are treated with 800 mg pazopanib once daily and reducing the initial starting dose to 200mg per day for patients with moderate impairment, no further dose modification guidelines based on results of serum liver tests during therapy have been established for patients with pre-existing hepatic impairment.
Hypertension: In clinical studies with pazopanib, events of hypertension including hypertensive crisis have occurred. Blood pressure should be well controlled prior to initiating VOTRIENT. Patients should be monitored for hypertension early after starting treatment (no longer than one a week after starting VOTRIENT) and frequently thereafter to ensure blood pressure control and treated promptly with a combination of standard anti-hypertensive therapy and VOTRIENT dose reduction or interruption as clinically warranted (see Dosage and Administration, Adverse Effects). Hypertension (systolic blood pressure ≥ 150 or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 100 mm Hg) occurs early in the course of VOTRIENT treatment (39 % of cases occurred by Day 9 and 88 % occurred in the first 18 weeks). VOTRIENT should be discontinued if there is evidence of hypertensive crisis or if hypertension is severe and persists despite anti-hypertensive therapy and VOTRIENT dose reduction.
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) /Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome (RPLS): PRES/RPLS has been reported in association with VOTRIENT. PRES/RPLS is a neurological disorder which can present with headache, hypertension (mild to severe), seizure, lethargy, confusion, blindness and other visual and neurological disturbances, and can be fatal. The diagnosis of RPLS is optimally confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging. Permanently discontinue VOTRIENT in patients developing PRES/RPLS.
Cardiac Dysfunction: In Clinical trials with VOTRIENT, events of cardiac dysfunction such as congestive heart failure and decreased left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) have occurred. Serious treatment-related left ventricular dysfunction was reported in 4 out of 240 patients (1.7%) in the placebo-controlled study VEG110727. In this trial decreases in LVEF in patients who had post-baseline measurement were detected in 11% (16/142) in the VOTRIENT arm compared with 5% (2/40) in the placebo arm. Fourteen of the 16 patients in the VOTRIENT arm had concurrent hypertension which may have exacerbated cardiac dysfunction in patients at risk (e.g., those with prior anthracycline therapy) by increasing cardiac after-load.
Blood pressure should be monitored and managed promptly using a combination of anti-hypertensive therapy and dose modification of VOTRIENT (interruption and re-initiation at a reduced dose based on clinical judgement). Patients should be carefully monitored for clinical signs or symptoms of congestive heart failure. Baseline and periodic evaluation of LVEF is recommended in patients at risk of cardiac dysfunction.
QT Prolongation and Torsade de Pointes: In clinical studies with VOTRIENT, events of QT prolongation or Torsade de Pointes have occurred (see Adverse Effects). VOTRIENT should be used with caution in patients with a history of QT interval prolongation, patients taking antiarrythmics or other medications that may potentially prolong QT interval, or those with relevant pre-existing cardiac disease. When using VOTRIENT, baseline and periodic monitoring of electrocardiograms and maintenance of electrolytes (calcium, magnesium, potassium) within normal range is recommended.
Arterial Thrombotic Events: In clinical studies with VOTRIENT, myocardial infarctions, angina, ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack were observed (see Adverse Effects). Fatal events have been observed. VOTRIENT should be used with caution in patients who are at increased risk of thrombotic events or who have had a history of thrombotic events. VOTRIENT has not been studied in patients who have had an event within the previous 6 months. A treatment decision should be made based upon the assessment of individual patient’s benefit/risk.
Venous Thromboembolic Events: In clinical studies with VOTRIENT, venous thromboembolic events including venous thrombosis and fatal pulmonary embolus have occurred. The incidence was higher in the STS population (5%) than in the RCC population (2%).
Thrombotic Microangiopathy: Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) has been reported in clinical trials of VOTRIENT as monotherapy, in combination with bevacizumab, and in combination with topotecan (see Adverse Effects). Permanently discontinue VOTRIENT in patients developing TMA. Reversal of effects of TMA has been observed after treatment was discontinued. VOTRIENT is not indicated for use in combination with other agents.
Haemorrhagic Events: In clinical studies with VOTRIENT haemorrhagic events have been reported (see Adverse Effects). Fatal haemorrhagic events have occurred. VOTRIENT has not been studied in patients who had a history of haemoptysis, cerebral, or clinically significant gastrointestinal haemorrhage in the past 6 months. VOTRIENT should be used with caution in patients with significant risk of haemorrhage.
Gastrointestinal Perforations and Fistula: In clinical studies with VOTRIENT, events of gastrointestinal (GI) perforation or fistula have occurred (see Adverse Effects). Fatal perforation events have occurred. VOTRIENT should be used with caution in patients at risk for GI perforation or fistula.
Wound Healing: No formal studies on the effect of VOTRIENT on wound healing have been conducted. Since Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) inhibitors may impair wound healing, treatment with VOTRIENT should be stopped at least 7 days prior to scheduled surgery. The decision to resume VOTRIENT after surgery should be based on clinical judgement of adequate wound healing. VOTRIENT should be discontinued in patients with wound dehiscence.
Hypothyroidism: In clinical studies with VOTRIENT, events of hypothyroidism have occurred (see Adverse Effects). Proactive monitoring of thyroid function tests is recommended.
Proteinuria: In clinical studies with VOTRIENT, proteinuria has been reported (see Adverse Effects). Baseline and periodic urinalyses during treatment are recommended and patients should be monitored for worsening proteinuria. VOTRIENT should be discontinued if the patient develops nephrotic syndrome.
Infections: Cases of serious infections (with or without neutropenia), in some cases with fatal outcomes, have been reported.
Combination with other systemic anti-cancer therapies: Clinical trials of VOTRIENT in combination with ALIMTA (non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)) and TYKERB (cervical cancer) were terminated early due to concerns over increased toxicity and/or mortality, and a safe and effective combination dose have not been established with these regimens. VOTRIENT is not indicated for use in combination with other agents.
Juvenile Toxicity: VOTRIENT is not recommended for use in children and adolescents below 18 years of age due to insufficient data on safety and efficacy. Because the mechanism of action of VOTRIENT can severely affect organ growth and maturation during early post natal development, VOTRIENT is predicted to cause severe or life-threatening toxicity in patients younger than 2 years of age and should not be given.
In juvenile toxicity studies, when pre-weaning rats were dosed from day 9 post partum through day 14 postpartum, pazopanib caused mortalities and abnormal organ growth/maturation in kidney, lung, liver and heart, at a dose approximately 0.1 times the clinical exposure based on AUC in adults. In rats, weaning occurs at day 21 postpartum which approximately equates to a human paediatric age of 2 years.
Interactions with CYP3A4 Inhibitors: Concomitant treatment with strong inhibitors of CYP3A4 or P-glycoprotein (P-gp) should be avoided due to risk of increased exposure to pazopanib (see Interactions with Other Medicines). Selection of alternative concomitant medicinal products with no or minimal potential to inhibit CYP3A4 or P-gp should be considered.
Effects on fertility
Pazopanib may impair fertility in human males and females. In a female reproductive toxicity study in rats, reduced fertility has been observed. Decreased corpora lutea and increased incidence of ovarian cysts and atrophy have also been noted in rodents. Decreased corpora lutea was also noted in cynomolgus monkeys given 500 mg/kg/day pazopanib (equivalent to the human clinical exposure based on AUC) for up to 34 weeks.
Pazopanib did not affect mating or fertility in male rats. However, there were reductions in sperm production rates, sperm motility, and epididymal and testicular sperm concentrations at doses ≥ 100 mg/kg/day (approximately 0.3 times the human clinical exposure based on AUC) following 15 weeks of dosing. Following 15 and 26 weeks of dosing, there were decreased testicular and epididymal weights at ≥ 30 mg/kg/day (approximately 0.4 times the human clinical exposure based on AUC). Atrophy and degeneration of the testes with aspermia, hypospermia and cribiform change in the epididymis was also observed in male rats given ≥ 30 mg/kg/day in the 26-week toxicity study.
Use in Pregnancy (Category D)
There are no adequate data from the use of pazopanib in pregnant women.
VOTRIENT can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Pazopanib has been shown to be embryotoxic and teratogenic when administered to rats and rabbits at exposures below clinical exposure. Effects included cardiovascular malformations, incomplete or absent ossification, increased pre- and post-implantation loss, early resorptions, embryo lethality, and decreased foetal body weight.
VOTRIENT should not be used during pregnancy unless, in the opinion of the physician, the potential benefits of treatment to the mother outweigh any possible risks to the developing foetus.
If VOTRIENT is used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while receiving VOTRIENT, the potential hazard to the foetus should be explained to the patient. Women of childbearing potential should be advised to avoid becoming pregnant while receiving treatment with VOTRIENT. Ensure contraceptive cover in women of childbearing potential during use and for four weeks after therapy.
Use in Lactation
The safe use of VOTRIENT during lactation has not been established. It is not known whether pazopanib is excreted in human milk. Many drugs are excreted into human milk. VOTRIENT should not be used by breastfeeding women.
Ability to perform tasks that require judgement, motor or cognitive skills
There have been no studies to investigate the effect of VOTRIENT on driving performance or the ability to operate machinery. A detrimental effect on such activities cannot be predicted from the pharmacology of VOTRIENT. The clinical status of the patient and the adverse event profile of VOTRIENT should be borne in mind when considering the patient’s ability to perform task that require judgment, motor and cognitive skills.
Pazopanib was negative for genotoxicity in genotoxicity assays (Ames assay, human peripheral lymphocyte chromosome aberration assay and rat micronucleus assay). A synthetic intermediate in the manufacture of pazopanib, which is also present in the final drug substance, was not mutagenic in the Ames assay but was genotoxic in the mouse lymphoma L5178Y TK +/- and micronucleus assays and is controlled to below a daily intake of 0.1 mg.
Carcinogenicity studies with pazopanib have not been performed.
Interactions with Other Medicines
Drugs that Inhibit or Induce Cytochrome P450 3A4 Enzymes
In vitro studies suggested that the oxidative metabolism of pazopanib in human liver microsomes is mediated primarily by CYP3A4, with minor contributions from CYP1A2 and CYP2C8. Therefore, inhibitors and inducers of CYP3A4 may alter the metabolism of VOTRIENT.
CYP3A4, P-gp, Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP) Inhibitors: Pazopanib is a substrate for CYP3A4, P-gp and BCRP.
Concurrent administration of pazopanib (400 mg once daily) with the strong CYP3A4 and P-gp inhibitor, ketoconazole (400 mg once daily) for 5 consecutive days, resulted in a 66 % and 45 % increase in mean pazopanib AUC(0-24) and Cmax, respectively, relative to administration of pazopanib alone (400 mg once daily for 7 days). There was also a greater degree of inter-subject variability in pazopanib pharmacokinetic parameters when pazopanib was administered with ketoconazole compared to when pazopanib was administered alone. Pazopanib Cmax and AUC increase in a less than dose proportional fashion with increasing dose over the range of 50 mg to 2000 mg.
Co-administration of pazopanib with other strong inhibitors of the CYP3A4 family (e.g. itraconazole, clarithromycin, atazanavir, indinavir, nefazodone, nelfinavir, ritonavir, saquinavir, telithromycin, voriconazole) may increase pazopanib concentrations. Grapefruit juice may also increase plasma concentrations of pazopanib.
Administration of 1500 mg lapatinib, a substrate and weak inhibitor of CYP3A4, P-gp and BCRP with 800 mg pazopanib resulted in an approximately 50 % to 60 % increase in mean pazopanib AUC(0-24) and Cmax compared to administration of 800 mg pazopanib alone.
Co-administration of pazopanib with a CYP3A4, Pgp, and BCRP inhibitor, such as lapatinib, will result in an increase in plasma pazopanib concentrations.
Concomitant use of pazopanib with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor should be avoided (e.g. ketoconazole, itraconazole, clarithromycin, atazanavir, indinavir, nefazodone, nelfinavir, ritonavir, saquinavir, telithromycin, voriconazole). If no medically acceptable alternative to a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor is available, the dose of pazopanib should be reduced to 400 mg daily during concomitant administration (see Precautions). Despite this dose reduction, some patients may still have systematic pazopanib exposure greater that what has been observed after administration of 800mg pazopanib alone. Further dose reduction may be considered if possible drug-related adverse events are observed.
Combination with strong P-gp inhibitors should be avoided, or selection of an alternate concomitant medication with no or minimal potential to inhibit P-gp is recommended.
CYP3A4 Inducers: CYP3A4 inducers such as rifampin may decrease plasma pazopanib concentrations. Selection of an alternate concomitant medication with no or minimal enzyme induction potential is recommended.
Effects of Pazopanib on CYP Substrates
In vitro studies with human liver microsomes showed that pazopanib inhibited CYP enzymes 1A2, 3A4, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, and 2E1. Potential induction of human CYP3A4 was demonstrated in an in vitro human PXR assay. Clinical pharmacology studies, using pazopanib 800 mg once daily, have demonstrated that pazopanib does not have a clinically relevant effect on the pharmacokinetics of caffeine (CYP1A2 probe substrate), warfarin (CYP2C9 probe substrate), or omeprazole (CYP2C19 probe substrate) in cancer patients. VOTRIENT resulted in an increase of approximately 30 % in the mean AUC and Cmax of midazolam (CYP3A4 probe substrate) and increases of 33% to 64% in the ratio of dextrometrophan to dextrorphan concentrations in the urine after oral administration of dextromethorphan (CYP2D6 probe substrate). Co-administration of pazopanib 800 mg once daily and paclitaxel 80 mg/m2 (CYP3A4 and CYP2C8 substrate) once weekly resulted in a mean increase of 26 % and 31 % in paclitaxel AUC and Cmax, respectively. Concomitant use of pazopanib with agents with narrow therapeutic windows that are metabolised by CYP3A4, CYP2D6, or CYP2C8 is not recommended. Coadministration may result in inhibition of the metabolism of these products and create the potential for serious adverse events.
Effects of Pazopanib on Other Enzymes and Transporters
In vitro studies also showed that pazopanib is a potent inhibitor of UGT1A1 and OATP1B1 with IC50 of 1.2 and 0.79 µM, respectively. Pazopanib may increase concentrations of drugs primarily eliminated through UGT1A1 (e.g. irinotecan) and OATP1B1 (e.g. rosuvastatin).
Effect of concomitant use of Pazopanib and Simvastatin
Concomitant use of pazopanib and simvastatin increases the incidence of ALT elevations. If a patient receiving concomitant simvastatin develops ALT elevations, follow guidelines for pazopanib posology and discontinue simvastatin (see Precautions). Insufficient data are available to assess the risk of concomitant administration of alternative statins and pazopanib.
Effect of Food on Pazopanib
Administration of pazopanib with a high-fat or low-fat meal results in an approximately 2-fold increase in AUC and Cmax. Therefore, pazopanib should be administered at least 1 hour before or 2 hours after a meal (see Dosage and Administration).
Medicines that raise gastric pH
Concomitant administration of VOTRIENT with esomeprazole decreases the bioavailability of VOTRIENT (AUC and Cmax), and co-administration of VOTRIENT with medicines that increase gastric pH should be avoided.
Clinical Trial Data
The safety and efficacy of VOTRIENT in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) were evaluated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multi-centre study. Patients with locally advanced and/or metastatic RCC were randomized to receive VOTRIENT 800 mg once daily (N=290) or placebo (N=145). The median duration of treatment was 7.4 months for the VOTRIENT arm and 3.8 months for the placebo arm.
The safety and efficacy of VOTRIENT in soft tissue sarcoma (STS) were evaluated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multi-centre study. Patients (N = 369) with advanced STS who had received prior anthracycline treatment, or were unsuited for such therapy, were randomized to receive VOTRIENT 800 mg once daily (N = 246) or placebo (N = 123). The median duration of treatment was 4.5 months for the pazopanib arm and 1.9 months for the placebo arm.
Adverse reactions are listed below by MedDRA body system organ class.
The following convention has been utilised for the classification of frequency:
Very common: ≥ 1 in 10
Common: ≥ 1 in 100 and < 1 in 10
Uncommon: ≥ 1 in 1,000 and < 1 in 100
Rare: ≥ 1 in 10,000 and < 1 in 1,000
Categories have been assigned based on absolute frequencies in the clinical trial data.
Table 4: Adverse reactions, by organ class and frequency, reported in RCC (VEG105192, VEG108844. VEG113078) and STS (VEG110727) studies
|RCC VEG105192, , VEG108844, VEG113078 n=844||STS VEG110727 n=240|
|Blood and lymphatic system disorders|
|Anorexia||Very common||Very common|
|Weight decreased||Very common||Very common|
|Nervous System disorders|
|Dysgeusia||Very common||Very common|
|Headache||Very common||Very common|
|Transient ischaemic stroke*||Uncommon||♦|
|Cardiac dysfunction (such as a decrease in ejection fraction and congestive heart failure)*||Common||Common|
|Torsade de pointes*||Uncommon||♦|
|Hypertension*||Very common||Very common|
|Venous thromboembolic events*||Common||Common|
|Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders|
|Cough||Very common||Very common|
|Dyspnoea||Very common||Very common|
|Abdominal pain||Very common||Very common|
|Diarrhoea||Very common||Very common|
|Lipase elevations °||Common||♦|
|Nausea||Very common||Very common|
|Stomatitis||Very common||Very common|
|Vomiting||Very common||Very common|
|Alanine amino transferase increased||Very common||Common|
|Aspartate amino transferase increased||Very common||Common|
|Hepatic function abnormal||Common||♦|
|Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders|
|Alopecia||Very common||Very common|
|Exfoliative rash||Common||Very common|
|Hair depigmentation||Very common||Very common|
|Palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia syndrome||Very common||Very common|
|Skin depigmentation||Common||Very common|
|Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders|
|Musculoskeletal pain||Common||Very common|
|Renal urinary disorders|
|General disorders and administration site disorders|
|Chest pain*||Common||Very common|
|Fatigue||Very common||Very common|
|Oedema peripheral||Common||Very common|
* See Warnings and Precautions for additional information.
♦ - Adverse event was not considered causally related to pazopanib in the pivotal clinical trial for this indication. Note: Laboratory findings which met the CTC-AE criteria were recorded as adverse events at the discretion of the Investigator
† See below for further information
‡ - For RCC, the frequency category is based on data from the supportive single-arm study VEG102616.
Bradycardia: In clinical studies with VOTRIENT, bradycardia has been experienced very commonly based on heart rate measurement. In a randomised, double-blind study in renal cell carcinoma patients (see CLINICAL TRIALS), at least one episode of heart rate <60 bpm was experienced in 33/280 patients (11.8%) in the VOTRIENT arm and 11/144 patients (7.6%) in the placebo arm. Bradycardia has also been reported commonly as an adverse event. In the same study, bradycardia or sinus bradycardia were reported as adverse events in 7/290 patients (2.4%) in the VOTRIENT arm, and 1/145 patients (0.7%) in the placebo arm. Most bradycardia with VOTRIENT has been asymptomatic, however syncope due to bradycardia has been reported.
Neutropenia, thrombocytopenia and palmar-plantar erythrodysaethesia syndrome were observed more frequently in patients of East Asian descent.
Table 5 presents the incidence of very common (>10%) treatment-related adverse events in RCC for patients receiving VOTRIENT versus those on placebo.
Table 5. Treatment-related Adverse Events Reported for at least 10% of patients who received VOTRIENT or Placebo in RCC (VEG105192)
|Adverse Event, n (%)||Number (% of patients)|
|VOTRIENT (n = 290)||Placebo (n = 145)|
|Any Grade||Grade 3||Grade 4||Any Grade||Grade 3||Grade 4|
|Any||270 (93)||103(36)||25 (9)||107 (74)||24 (17)||8 (6)|
|Diarrhoea||152 (52)||11 (4)||2 (<1)||13 (9)||1 (<1)||0|
|Hair colour changes||109 (38)||1 (<1)||0||4 (3)||0||0|
|Hypertension||116 (40)||13 (4)||0||15 (10)||1 (<1)||0|
|Nausea||74 (26)||2 (<1)||0||13 (9)||0||0|
|Decreased appetite||70 (24)||6 (2)||0||17 (12)||1 (<1)||0|
|Vomiting||62 (21)||7 (2)||1 (<1)||13 (9)||3 (2)||0|
|Fatigue||57 (20)||7 (2)||0||14 (10)||2 (1)||2 (1)|
|ALT increased||55 (19)||18 (6)||3 (1)||5 (3)||1 (<1)||0|
|AST increase||45 (16)||14 (5)||1 (<1)||5 (3)||0||0|
|Asthenia||42 (14)||8 (3)||0||13 (9)||0||0|
|Abdominal pain||32 (11)||7 (2)||0||2 (1)||0||0|
|Headache||31 (11)||0||0||7 (5)||0||0|
|Proteinuria||30 (10)||6 (2)||1 (<1)||0||0||0|
|Weight decreased||30 (10)||2 (<1)||0||5 (3)||1 (<1)||0|
Table 6 presents the incidence of very common (>10%) treatment-related adverse events in STS for patients receiving VOTRIENT versus those on placebo.
Table 6. Treatment-related Adverse Events Reported for at least 10% of patients who received VOTRIENT or Placebo in STS (VEG110727)
|Adverse Event, n (%)||Number (% of patients)|
|VOTRIENT (n = 240)||Placebo (n = 123)|
|Any Grade||Grade 3||Grade 4||Any Grade||Grade 3||Grade 4|
|Any AE||219 (91)||84 (35)||17 (7)||78 (63)||6 (5)||3 (2)|
|Diarrhoea||130 (54)||11 (5)||0||14 (11)||0||0|
|Fatigue||126 (53)||23 (10)||1 (<1)||33 (27)||2 (2)||0|
|Nausea||116 (48)||7(3)||0||19 (15)||2 (2)||0|
|Hypertension||94 (39)||16 (7)||0||5 (4)||0||0|
|Hair colour changes||93 (39)||0||0||3 (2)||0||0|
|Decreased appetite||82 (34)||11 (5)||0||10 (8)||0||0|
|Weight decreased||72 (30)||5 (2)||0||8 (7)||0||0|
|Dysgeusia||65 (27)||0||0||4 (3)||0||0|
|Vomiting||61 (25)||7(3)||0||8 (7)||1 (<1)||0|
|Headache||38 (16)||1 (<1)||0||5 (4)||0||0|
|Exfoliative rash||35 (15)||2 (<1)||0||9 (7)||0||0|
|Gastrointestinal pain||34 (14)||3(1)||0||4 (3)||1 (<1)||0|
|Ear, nose and throat examination abnormal||28 (12)||4 (2)||0||1 (<1)||0||0|
|Myalgia||27 (11)||2 (<1)||0||3 (2)||0||0|
|Skin hypopigmentation||27 (11)||0||0||0||0||0|
|Skin disorder||26 (11)||4 (2)||0||1 (<1)||0||0|
|Stomatitis||26 (11)||1 (<1)||0||4 (3)||0||0|
|Alopecia||25 (10)||0||0||1 (<1)||0||0|
|Musculoskeletal pain||23 (10)||1 (<1)||0||3 (2)||0||0|
Table 7 presents laboratory abnormalities occurring in ≥ 15 % of patients who received VOTRIENT in the pivotal RCC studies. Grades are based on the NCI CTCAE.
Table 7. Selected Laboratory Abnormalities in ≥ 15 % of Patients who Received VOTRIENT and More Commonly than Placebo Arm (VEG105192)
|Parameters||VOTRIENT (N = 290)||Placebo (N = 145)|
|All Grades %||Grade 3 %||Grade 4 %||All Grades %||Grade 3 %||Grade 4 %|
|Total Bilirubin increased||36||3||<1||10||1||<1|
Lipase Elevations: In a single-arm clinical study, increases in lipase values were observed for 48/181 patients (27%). Elevations in lipase as an adverse reaction were reported for 10 patients (4%) and were Grade 3 for 6 patients and Grade 4 for 1 patient. In clinical RCC studies of VOTRIENT, clinical pancreatitis was observed in 4/586 patients (<1%).
Table 8 presents laboratory abnormalities occurring in ≥ 15 % of patients who received VOTRIENT in the pivotal STS study. Grades are based on the NCI CTCAE
Table 8. Selected Laboratory Abnormalities in ≥ 15 % of Patients who Received VOTRIENT and More Common than Placebo Arm (VEG110727)
|Parameters||Pazopanib (N = 240)||Placebo (N = 123)|
|All Grades %||Grade 3 %||Grade 4 %||All Grades %||Grade 3 %||Grade 4 %|
|Total Bilirubin increased||29||1||0||7||2||0|
Post marketing data
The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of pazopanib. This includes spontaneous case reports as well as serious adverse events from ongoing studies, clinical pharmacology studies and exploratory studies in unapproved indications.
Infections and infestations
Uncommon:Infections (with or without neutropenia)
Blood and lymphatic system disorders
Rare:Thrombotic microangiopathy (including thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and haemolytic uraemic syndrome)
Nervous system disorders
Uncommon:Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome
Common:Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase increased
Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders
Dosage and Administration
The recommended dose of VOTRIENT for the treatment of RCC or STS is 800 mg orally once daily.
VOTRIENT should be taken without food (at least one hour before or two hours after a meal) (see Pharmacokinetics).
VOTRIENT should be taken whole with water and must not be broken or crushed.
If a dose is missed, it should not be taken if it is less than 12 hours until the next dose.
Dose modification, either an increase or decrease in dose, should be in 200 mg increments in a stepwise fashion based on individual tolerability in order to manage adverse reactions. The daily dose of VOTRIENT should not exceed 800 mg.
VOTRIENT is not recommended for use in children and adolescents below 18 years of age due to insufficient data on safety and efficacy (see Precautions).
No alteration of dosage, dosing frequency or route of administration is required in patients over 65 years.
Renal impairment is not expected to have a clinically relevant effect on VOTRIENT pharmacokinetics given the low renal excretion of pazopanib and metabolites (see Excretion).
Renal impairment is not expected to influence pazopanib exposure, and dose adjustment is not necessay in patients with creatinine clearance ≥30ml/min. There is no experience of VOTRIENT in patients with severe renal impairment or in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis or haemodialysis; therefore, use of pazopanib is not recommended in these patients.
The safety and pharmacokinetics of VOTRIENT in patients with pre-existing hepatic impairment have not been fully established (see Precautions).
No dose adjustment is required in patients with mild hepatic impairment as defined by alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and bilirubin (see Pharmacology).
The dose of VOTRIENT should be reduced to 200 mg per day in patients with moderate hepatic impairment). There are insufficient data in patients with severe hepatic impairment (total bilirubin > 3 x ULN regardless of any level of ALT); therefore, use of VOTRIENT is not recommended in these patients.
VOTRIENT doses up to 2,000 mg have been evaluated in clinical trials. Grade 3 fatigue (dose limiting toxicity) and Grade 3 hypertension were each observed in 1 of 3 patients dosed at 2,000 mg and 1,000 mg daily, respectively.
Symptoms and Signs
There is currently limited experience with overdosage in VOTRIENT.
Further management should be as clinically indicated or as recommended by the national poisons centre, where available. Haemodialysis is not expected to enhance the elimination of VOTRIENT because pazopanib is not significantly renally excreted and is highly bound to plasma proteins
Presentation and Storage Conditions
The 200 mg tablets are modified capsule-shaped, pink, film-coated with ‘GS JT’ debossed on one side.
The 400 mg tablets are modified capsule-shaped, white, film-coated with ‘GS UHL’ debossed on one side.
Store below 30°C.
Nature and Contents of Container
VOTRIENT 200 mg film-coated tablets are supplied in high-density polyethylene (HDPE) bottles with child resistant polypropylene closures containing 30 or 90 tablets*.
VOTRIENT 400 mg film-coated tablets are supplied in high-density polyethylene (HDPE) bottles with child resistant polypropylene closures containing 30 or 60 tablets*.
* Not all pack sizes may be distributed in Australia.
Name and Address of the Sponsor:
GlaxoSmithKline Australia Pty Ltd
436 Johnston Street,
Abbotsford, Victoria 3067
Poison Schedule of the Medicine:
Date of First Inclusion in the Australian Register of Therapeutic Goods (The ARTG):
30 June 2010
Date of Most Recent Amendment:
20 March 2015
VOTRIENT® is a registered trade mark of the GlaxoSmithKline Group of Companies.