Trajenta Linagliptin Tablets: Indications, Dosage, Precautions, Adverse Effects
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Trajenta Linagliptin Tablets - Product Information

Manufacture: Eli Lilly and Company
Country: Canada
Condition: Type 2 Diabetes (Diabetes, Type 2)
Class: Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors
Form: Tablets
Ingredients: linagliptin, hypromellose, titanium dioxide, talc, macrogol, iron oxide red

Summary Product Information

Route of
Administration
Dosage Form /
Strength
Clinically Relevant Nonmedicinal
Ingredients
oraltablet 5 mgMannitol
For a complete listing see Dosage Forms, Composition and Packaging section.

Indications and Clinical Use

TRAJENTA (linagliptin) is indicated in adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) to improve glycemic control.

Monotherapy

In conjunction with diet and exercise in patients for whom metformin is inappropriate due to contraindications or intolerance.

Combination Therapy

In combination with metformin when diet and exercise plus metformin alone do not provide adequate glycemic control.

In combination with a sulfonylurea when diet and exercise plus a sulfonylurea alone do not provide adequate glycemic control.

In combination with metformin and a sulfonylurea when diet and exercise plus metformin and a sulfonylurea do not provide adequate glycemic control.

Geriatrics (≥ 65 years of age)

TRAJENTA has been studied in a limited number of patients >75 years. (See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS, Special Populations, DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and ACTION AND CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY).

Pediatrics (<18 years of age)

Safety and effectiveness of TRAJENTA in pediatric patients have not been studied. Therefore TRAJENTA should not be used in this patient population.

Contraindications

  • Patients who are hypersensitive to this drug or to any ingredient in the formulation. For a complete listing, see the DOSAGE FORMS, COMPOSITION and PACKAGING section of the product monograph.
  • Patients with type 1 diabetes or for the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis.

Warnings and Precautions

General

The use of TRAJENTA in combination with insulin is not indicated due to a cardiovascular risk which cannot be excluded (see WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS, Cardiovascular).

Cardiovascular

Patients with Congestive Heart Failure

A limited number of patients with history of congestive heart failure participated in clinical studies with TRAJENTA. In clinical trials, patients with a clinically significant history of cardiac disease or presence of active cardiac disease within 6 months were excluded. Use in this population is not recommended.

Patients using insulin

TRAJENTA is not indicated in combination with insulin due to an increase in cardiovascular risk, which cannot be excluded. In a Phase III randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group efficacy and safety study of TRAJENTA 5 mg, administered orally once daily for at least 52 weeks in 1255 type 2 diabetic patients in combination with basal insulin therapy, a composite endpoint of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke occurred in 0.80% ( 5 of 627) of patients in the placebo group and in 1.59% (10 of 628) of subjects in the linagliptin group (Hazard Ratio 1.93 [0.66, 5.66]). The incidence of cardiovascular death was 0.16% (1 of 627) in the placebo group and 0.80% (5 of 628) in the linagliptin group (Hazard Ratio 4.79 [0.56, 40.98]). These findings were not statistically significant.

In a pooled analysis of 4 studies with insulin background consisting of 1613 patients on linagliptin and placebo, the difference between the linagliptin and placebo group for cardiovascular risk was not statistically significant. A composite endpoint of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke occurred in 1.12% (9 of 802) of patients in the placebo group and in 1.97 ( 16 of 811) of subjects in the linagliptin group (Hazard Ratio 1.73 [ 0.77, 3.92]).

Endocrine and Metabolism

Hypoglycemia

Use with Sulfonylureas

When TRAJENTA was used in combination with a sulfonylurea plus metformin, the incidence of hypoglycemia was increased over the placebo in combination with a sulfonylurea plus metformin (see ADVERSE REACTIONS, CLINICAL TRIAL Adverse Drug Reactions and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION). Therefore, caution is advised when linagliptin is used in combination with a sulfonylurea. A dose reduction of the sulfonylurea may be considered to reduce the risk of hypoglycemia.

Loss of control of blood glucose

When a patient stabilized on TRAJENTA is exposed to stress such as fever, trauma, infection, or surgery, a loss of control of blood glucose may occur. At such times, it may be necessary to temporarily discontinue TRAJENTA and administer insulin.

Use with P-gp/CYP3A4 inducers

Long term co-treatment with strong inducers of P-gp or CYP3A4 (e.g. rifampicin) may reduce the glycemic lowering effect of TRAJENTA. Where efficacy is insufficient, the physician should consider either a change of the P-gp/CYP3A4 inducer to a non P-gp/CYP3A4 inducing compound or a change of linagliptin to another oral antidiabetic (see DRUG INTERACTIONS).

Hepatic/Biliary/Pancreatic

The number of patients with hepatic impairment was limited in clinical trials. Use in patients with severe hepatic insufficiency is not recommended (see DOSAGE and ADMINISTRATION and ACTION AND CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY).

Pancreatitis

There have been reports of acute and chronic pancreatitis, in patients taking TRAJENTA during the clinical trials and post marketing reports of acute pancreatitis in patients taking TRAJENTA. Reports of acute pancreatitis, including fatal and non-fatal hemorrhagic or necrotizing pancreatitis, were noted in patients taking other members of this class. After initiation of TRAJENTA, patients should be observed carefully for signs and symptoms of pancreatitis. If pancreatitis is suspected, TRAJENTA should promptly be discontinued and appropriate management should be initiated. It is unknown whether patients with a history of pancreatitis are at increased risk for the development of pancreatitis while using TRAJENTA. Risk factors for pancreatitis include a history of: pancreatitis, gallstones, alcoholism, or hypertriglyceridemia.

Hypersensitivity Reactions

Serious hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylaxis, angioedema, bronchial reactivity, rash, and urticaria, were observed with TRAJENTA in clinical trials and/or post marketing reports. If a hypersensitivity reaction is suspected, discontinue TRAJENTA, assess for other potential causes for the event, and institute alternative treatment for diabetes (see CONTRAINDICATIONS and ADVERSE REACTIONS).

With other members of this class, there have been post-marketing reports of exfoliative skin conditions, including Stevens-Johnson syndrome. Onset of these reactions occurred within the first 3 months after initiation of treatment, with some reports occurring after the first dose.

Immune

Immunocompromised patients

A dose-related mean decrease in absolute lymphocyte count was observed with other members of this class. When clinically indicated, such as in settings of unusual or prolonged infection, lymphocyte count should be measured. The effect of TRAJENTA on lymphocyte counts in patients with lymphocyte abnormalities (e.g. human immunodeficiency virus) is unknown. Immunocompromised patients, such as patients who have undergone organ transplantation or patients diagnosed with human immunodeficiency syndrome have not been studied in the TRAJENTA clinical program. Therefore, the efficacy and safety profile of TRAJENTA in these patients has not been established.

Peri-operative Considerations

See Endocrine and Metabolism section - Loss of control of blood glucose.

Renal

Clinical study experience with TRAJENTA in patients with End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) and those on dialysis is limited. TRAJENTA should be used with caution in these patients (see DOSAGE and ADMINISTRATION and ACTION AND CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY).

Skin

Ulcerative and necrotic skin lesions have been reported with other members of this class. Although skin lesions were not observed at an increased incidence in clinical trials, there is limited experience in patients with diabetic skin complications. In keeping with routine care of the diabetic patient, monitoring for skin disorders is recommended.

Special Populations

Reproduction

No studies on the effect on human fertility have been conducted for TRAJENTA. No adverse effects on fertility were observed in rats up to the highest dose of 240 mg/kg/day (approximately 900 times human exposure based on AUC comparisons).

Pregnant Women

TRAJENTA is not recommended for use in pregnancy. There are no adequate and well controlled studies of TRAJENTA in pregnant women; therefore the safety of TRAJENTA in pregnant women is not known. Linagliptin was not teratogenic in rats and rabbits. At doses of 240 mg/kg/day in rats and 150 mg/kg/day in rabbits, increased resorption rate and intrauterine deaths were noted. There were slight delays in skeletal ossification or increased incidence of visceral and skeletal variations. AUCs were approximately 1000 to 2000 times human exposure (see TOXICOLOGY).

Nursing Women

TRAJENTA should not be used during breast-feeding. There are no data in nursing women. Linagliptin is secreted in the milk of lactating rats. It is not known whether linagliptin is secreted in human milk. A risk to the newborns/infants cannot be excluded.

Pediatrics (<18 years of age)

Safety and effectiveness of TRAJENTA in pediatric patients have not been studied. Therefore TRAJENTA should not be used in this patient population.

Geriatrics (≥ 65 years of age)

TRAJENTA has been studied in limited number of patients >75 years. No overall difference in safety and efficacy between elderly and younger patients was observed. Greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.

Monitoring and Laboratory Tests

Response to TRAJENTA treatment should be monitored by periodic measurements of blood glucose and HbA1c levels. Hepatic function should be assessed before starting treatment and periodically thereafter.

When TRAJENTA is co-administered with strong inducers of P-gp or CYP3A4, the physician should monitor glucose more closely. In cases of insufficient efficacy, the physician should consider either a change of the P-gp/CYP3A4 inducer to a non P-gp/CYP3A4 inducing compound or a change of TRAJENTA to another oral antidiabetic (see DRUG INTERACTIONS).

Adverse Reactions

Adverse Drug Reaction Overview

TRAJENTA (linagliptin) was generally well tolerated in controlled clinical studies with an overall incidence of adverse events in patients treated with linagliptin 5 mg comparable to placebo (63.1% vs. 60.3% placebo). The most frequently reported adverse event was hypoglycemia observed under the triple combination, linagliptin plus metformin plus sulfonylurea 22.9% vs. 14.8% in placebo (see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS, Endocrine and Metabolism, Hypoglycemia). In the pooled placebo controlled trials, nasopharyngitis was observed more frequently with linagliptin compared to placebo (5.9% vs. 4.7% placebo).

The incidence of serious adverse events was low in both treatment groups (4.8% linagliptin 5mg vs. 5.9% placebo).

The main causes for discontinuation for TRAJENTA were diarrhea (0.2% vs. 0.1% placebo), glomerular filtration rate decreased (0.3% vs. 0.2% placebo), hyperglycemia (0.2% vs. 0.8% placebo) and hypoglycemia (0.2% vs. 0.0% placebo).

An adverse reaction reported in ≥ 1% in patients treated with TRAJENTA (n= 4302) and more commonly than in patients treated with placebo (n= 2364) was hypoglycemia (6.2% vs. 5.9% placebo), occurring predominantly under the triple combination, linagliptin plus metformin plus sulfonylurea.

In the pooled clinical trial program, pancreatitis was reported in 8 of 4302 patients (2284 patient years of exposure) treated with TRAJENTA (including 3 patients reported following the last administered dose of linagliptin) compared with 1 of 2364 patients (1356 patient years of exposure) treated with placebo.

Clinical Trial Adverse Drug Reactions

Because clinical trials are conducted under very specific conditions the adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials may not reflect the rates observed in practice and should not be compared to the rates in the clinical trials of another drug. Adverse drug reaction information from clinical trials is useful for identifying drug-related adverse events and for approximating rates.

The safety of TRAJENTA has been evaluated in over 6600 patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, most of whom received the target dose of 5 mg.

In placebo-controlled studies, over 6600 patients were included and over 4300 patients were treated with the therapeutic dose of 5 mg linagliptin. More than 4000 patients were exposed to linagliptin 5 mg once daily for ≥ 12 weeks.

Adverse events were analysed and displayed based on the respective treatment regimens (monotherapy, add on to metformin, add on to sulfonylurea and add on to meformin plus sulfonylurea).

Adverse reactions classified by SOC and MedDRA preferred terms reported in ≥ 2% of patients treated with TRAJENTA 5 mg daily as monotherapy or in combination with sulfonylurea or metformin and at least 2-fold more commonly than in patients treated with placebo are shown in Table 1 below.

Table 1 Adverse Reactions Reported in ≥2% of Patients Treated with TRAJENTA and at Least 2-Fold Greater than with Placebo in Placebo-Controlled Clinical Studies of TRAJENTA Monotherapy or Combination Therapy
SOC
Adverse Reaction
Linagliptin
monotherapy *
Linagliptin +
Metformin #
Linagliptin +
Sulphonylurea
Linagliptin +
Metformin +
Sulphonylurea
TRAJENTA
n=766
(%)
Placebo
n=458
(%)
TRAJENTA
n= 1322
(%)
Placebo
n= 583
(%)
TRAJENTA
n=161 (%)
Placebo
n=84
(%)
TRAJENTA
n=791 (%)
Placebo
n=263
(%)
Infections & infestations
Nasopharyngitis--------7 (4.3)1 (1.2)----
Respiratory, thoracic & mediastinal disorders
Cough----------19 (2.4)3 (1.1)
Metabolism & nutrition disorders
Hypertriglyceridaemia--------4 (2.4)0 (0.0)----
Gastrointestinal disorders
Constipation----------------

* pooled data from 7 studies
# Pooled data from 5 studies
Includes reports of hypertriglyceridemia (n = 2; 1.2%) and blood triglycerides increased (n = 2; 1.2%)

The incidence of adverse events, reported regardless of causality assessment, in ≥ 2 % of patients and occurring more frequently in patients treated with TRAJENTA 5 mg over placebo, as add-on to metformin, or add-on to sulfonylurea, or add-on to metformin plus sulfonylurea are shown in Table 2 to Table 6.

Table 2 Linagliptin monotherapy (pivotal trial, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group efficacy and safety study of linagliptin over 24 weeks in T2DM patients): frequency of adverse events ≥2% and for linagliptin in excess over placebo, irrespective of causality by system organ class and preferred term
System Organ Class/
Preferred term
Pbo
N (%)
Linagliptin
N (%)
Number of patients167 (100.0)336 (100.0)
Investigations11 (6.6)21 (6.3)
Blood glucose increased3 (1.8)7 (2.1)
Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders10 (6.0)32 (9.5)
Back pain3 (1.8)9 (2.7)
Nervous system disorders4 (2.4)15 (4.5)
Headache2 (1.2)9 (2.7)
Vascular disorders2 (1.2)17 (5.1)
Hypertension2 (1.2)12 (3.6)
Table 3 Linagliptin in combination with metformin (pivotal trial, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group efficacy and safety study of linagliptin over 24 weeks in T2DM patients): frequency of adverse events ≥2% and for linagliptin in excess over placebo, irrespective of causality by system organ class and preferred term
System Organ Class/
Preferred term
Pbo
N (%)
Linagliptin
N (%)
Number of patients177 (100.0)523 (100.0)
Infections and infestations38 (21.5)112 (21.4)
Nasopharyngitis9 (5.1)27 (5.2)
Influenza5 (2.8)18 (3.4)
Upper respiratory tract infection4 (2.3)15 (2.9)
Gastrointestinal disorders20 (11.3)58 (11.1)
Diarrhoea4 (2.3)15 (2.9)
Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders14 (7.9)58 (11.1)
Arthralgia3 (1.7)11 (2.1)
Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders5 (2.8)25 (4.8)
Cough3 (1.7)11 (2.1)
Table 4 Linagliptin in combination with sulfonylurea (pivotal trial, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group efficacy and safety study of linagliptin over 18 weeks in T2DM patients): frequency of adverse events ≥2% and for linagliptin in excess over placebo, irrespective of causality by system organ class and preferred term
System Organ Class/
Preferred term
Pbo
N (%)
Linagliptin
N (%)
Number of patients84 (100.0)161 (100.0)
Infections and infestations4 (4.8)20 (12.4)
Nasopharyngitis1 (1.2)7 (4.3)
Urinary tract infection0 (0.0)5 (3.1)
Table 5 Linagliptin in combination with metformin and sulfonylurea (pivotal trial, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group efficacy and safety study of linagliptin over 24 weeks in T2DM patients): frequency of adverse events ≥2% and for linagliptin in excess over placebo, irrespective of causality by system organ class and preferred term
System Organ Class/
Preferred term
Pbo
N (%)
Linagliptin
N (%)
Number of patients253 (100.0)791 (100.0)
General disorders and administration site conditions18 (6.8)61 (7.7)
Asthenia5 (1.9)19 (2.4)
Infections and infestations76 (28.9)169 (21.4)
Nasopharyngitis12 (4.6)40 (5.1)
Metabolism and nutrition disorders68 (25.9)246 (31.1)
Hypoglycaemia39 (14.8)180 (22.8)
Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders24 (9.1)98 (12.4)
Arthralgia4 (1.5)21 (2.7)
Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders7 (2.7)33 (4.2)
Cough3 (1.1)19 (2.4)
Vascular disorders6 (2.3)34 (4.3)
Hypertension5 (1.9)19 (2.4)
Table 6 Linagliptin in combination with metformin (BI study 1218.20, randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, parallel group efficacy and safety study of linagliptin as add-on combination use with metformin compared to a sulfonylurea agent (glimepiride) over 2 years in T2DM patients): frequency of adverse events ≥2% and for linagliptin in excess over placebo, irrespective of causality by system organ class and preferred term
System Organ Class/
Preferred term
Linagliptin + Metformin
N (%)
Glimepiride + Metformin
N (%)
Number of patients776 (100.0)775 (100.0)
Infections and infestations378 (48.7)393 (50.7)
Upper respiratory tract infections62 (8.0)59 (7.6)
Cystitis19 (2.4)13 (1.7)
Blood and lymphatic system disorders36 (4.6)30 (3.9)
Anaemia25 (3.2)17 (2.2)
Psychiatric disorders68 (8.8)61 (7.9)
Depression24 (3.1)22 (2.8)
Nervous system disorders149 (19.2)181 (23.4)
Headache50 (6.4)40 (5.2)
Vascular disorders89 (11.5)110 (14.2)
Arteriosclerosis20 (2.6)11 (1.4)
Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders108 (13.9)102 (13.2)
Cough47 (6.1)28 (4.9)
Gastrointestinal disorders215 (27.7)220 (28.4)
Constipation33 (4.3)16 (2.1)
Dyspepsia23 (3.0)17 (2.2)
Abdominal pain upper18 (2.3)17 (2.2)
Vomiting17 (2.2)12 (1.5)
Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders119 (15.3)95 (12.3)
Eczema18 (2.3)15 (1.9)
Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders257 (33.1)244 (31.5)
Bach pain71 (9.1)65 (8.4)
Arthralgia63 (8.1)47 (6.1)
Pain in extremity41 (5.3)30 (3.9)
Osteoarthritis33 (4.3)32 (4.1)
General disorders and administration site conditions114 (14.7)120 (15.5)
Fatigue23 (3.0)20 (2.6)
Injury, poisoning and procedural complications127 (16.4)107 (13.8)
Fall22 (2.8)11 (1.4)

Less common Clinical Trial Adverse Drug Reactions

Adverse events that occurred with an incidence between 0.1 and 2.0% in the dataset of pooled placebo-controlled clinical trials and were greater than placebo. Inclusion does not necessarily represent a causal relationship to TRAJENTA.

Gastrointestinal disorders: Abdominal distention, dyspepsia, abdominal pain upper, diarrhea, gastritis, nausea, vomiting
General disorders and administration site conditions: asthenia, malaise
Infections and infestations:
nasopharyngitis*
Investigations: aspartate aminotransferase increased
Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders: myalgia
Nervous system disorders:
tremor, headache
Respiratory and Thoracic: cough*
Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders: pruritis*

*BI assessed ADRs

Abnormal Hematologic and Clinical Chemistry Findings

Changes in laboratory findings were similar in patients treated with TRAJENTA 5 mg compared to patients treated with placebo. Measured laboratory values to assess the following were evaluated: hematology, electrolytes, liver enzymes, renal function, cholesterol (including bilirubin), and uric acid. Changes in these values, that occurred more frequently, in the TRAJENTA group and ≥1% more than in the placebo group were increases in uric acid (1.3% in the placebo group, 2.7 % in the TRAJENTA group).

Post-Marketing Adverse Drug Reactions

Additional adverse reactions have been identified during post-marketing use of TRAJENTA. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is generally not possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

Hepatic/biliary/pancreatic: pancreatitis
Immune system disorders: angioedema, urticaria, hypersensitivity, mouth ulceration
Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders: rash

Drug Interactions

Overview

The propensity of linagliptin to be involved in clinically meaningful drug-drug interactions mediated by plasma protein binding displacement is low, considering that linagliptin is only moderately bound to serum albumin and alpha-1-acid-glycoprotein.

Linagliptin is metabolized by the CYP isozyme CYP 3A4 to one pharmacologically inactive metabolite. In in vitro studies, linagliptin is a weak competitive and a weak to moderate inhibitor of CYP3A4. Linagliptin is not an inhibitor of CYP 1A1, 1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1 or 4A11 and is not an inducer of CYP 1A2, CYP 2B6 or CYP 3A4.

Linagliptin is a P-glycoprotein substrate, and inhibits P-glycoprotein mediated transport of digoxin with low potency in vitro. Based on these results and in vivo drug interaction studies, linagliptin is considered unlikely to cause interactions with other P-gp substrates.

In the case of long term co-treatment with strong inducers of P-gp or CYP3A4, full-efficacy may not be achieved. Therefore, blood-glucose should be closely monitored. In cases of insufficient efficacy, the physician should consider either a change of the P-gp/CYP3A4 inducer to a non P-gp/CYP3A4 inducing compound or a change of linagliptin to another oral antidiabetic (see also WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS, Endocrine and Metabolism and Monitoring and Laboratory Tests).

Drug-Drug Interactions

Linagliptin had no clinically relevant effect on the pharmacokinetics of metformin, glibenclamide, simvastatin, pioglitazone, warfarin, digoxin or oral contraceptives providing in vivo evidence of a low propensity for causing drug interactions with substrates of CYP3A4, CYP2C9, CYP2C8, P-glycoprotein, and organic cationic transporter (OCT). No dose adjustment of TRAJENTA is recommended based on results of the described pharmacokinetic studies.

Metformin

Co-administration of multiple three-times-daily doses of 850 mg metformin with a supratherapeutic dose of 10 mg linagliptin once daily did not alter the pharmacokinetics of linagliptin or metformin in healthy volunteers in a clinically meaningful way. Therefore, linagliptin is not an inhibitor of OCT-mediated transport.

Sulfonylureas

The steady-state pharmacokinetics of 5 mg linagliptin (administered once daily for 5 days) were not changed by co-administration of a single 1.75 mg dose of glibenclamide (glyburide). However there was a clinically not relevant reduction of 14% of both AUC and Cmax of glibenclamide. Because glibenclamide is primarily metabolized by CYP2C9, these data also support the conclusion that linagliptin is not a CYP2C9 inhibitor. Clinically meaningful interactions would not be expected with other sulfonylureas (e.g. glipizide, tolbutamide and glimepiride) which, like glibenclamide, are primarily eliminated by CYP2C9.

Pioglitazone

Co-administration of multiple daily doses of 10 mg linagliptin (supratherapeutic) with multiple daily doses of 45 mg pioglitazone, a CYP2C8 and CYP3A4 substrate, had no clinically relevant effect on the pharmacokinetics of either linagliptin or pioglitazone or the active metabolites of pioglitazone. This indicates that linagliptin is not an inhibitor of CYP2C8-mediated metabolism invivo and supports the conclusion that the in vivo inhibition of CYP3A4 by linagliptin is negligible.

Ritonavir

A study was conducted to assess the effect of ritonavir, a potent inhibitor of P-glycoprotein and CYP3A4, on the pharmacokinetics of linagliptin. Co-administration of a single 5 mg oral dose of linagliptin and 200 mg twice daily oral doses of ritonavir for three days increased the AUC and Cmax of linagliptin approximately twofold and threefold, respectively. Simulations of steady-state plasma concentrations of linagliptin with and without ritonavir indicated that the increase in exposure will not be associated with an increased accumulation. These changes in linagliptin pharmacokinetics were not considered to be clinically relevant. Therefore, clinically relevant interactions would not be expected with other P-glycoprotein/CYP3A4 inhibitors and dose adjustment is not required.

Rifampicin

A study was conducted to assess the effect of rifampicin, a potent inducer of P-glycoprotein and CYP3A4, on the pharmacokinetics of 5 mg linagliptin. Co-administration of linagliptin with rifampicin, resulted in a 39.6% and 43.8% decreased linagliptin steady-state AUC and Cmax, respectively, and about 30% decreased DPP-4 inhibition at trough. Thus, full efficacy might not be achieved with long term co-administration of linagliptin and rifampicin (or other strong P-gp/CYP3A4 inducers). The physician should closely monitor glucose. In cases of insufficient efficacy, the physician should consider either a change of the P-gp/CYP3A4 inducer to a non P-gp/CYP3A4 inducing compound or a change of TRAJENTA to another oral antidiabetic (see also WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS, Endocrine and Metabolism and Monitoring and Laboratory Tests).

Digoxin

Co-administration of multiple daily doses of 5 mg linagliptin with multiple doses of 0.25 mg digoxin had no effect on the pharmacokinetics of digoxin in healthy volunteers. Therefore, linagliptin is not an inhibitor of P-glycoprotein-mediated transport in vivo.

Warfarin

Multiple daily doses of 5 mg linagliptin did not alter the pharmacokinetics of S(-) or R(+) warfarin, a CYP2C9 substrate, showing that linagliptin is not an inhibitor of CYP2C9.

Simvastatin

Multiple daily doses of linagliptin had a minimal effect on the steady state pharmacokinetics of simvastatin, a sensitive CYP3A4 substrate, in healthy volunteers. Following administration of 10 mg linagliptin concomitantly with 40 mg of simvastatin daily for 6 days, the plasma AUC of simvastatin was increased by 34%, and the plasma Cmax by 10%. Therefore, linagliptin is unlikely to cause clinical meaningful interactions with simvastatin (or other statins which share similar elimination pathways). Linagliptin is considered to be a weak inhibitor of CYP3A4-mediated metabolism, and dosage adjustment of concomitantly administered substances metabolised by CYP3A4 is considered unnecessary.

Oral Contraceptives

Co-administration with 5 mg linagliptin did not alter the steady-state pharmacokinetics of levonorgestrel or ethinylestradiol.

Drug-Food Interactions

Interactions with food have not been established.

Drug-Herb Interactions

Interactions with herbal products have not been established.

Drug-Laboratory Interactions

Interactions with laboratory tests have not been established.

Drug-Lifestyle Interactions

No studies on the effects on the ability to drive and use machines have been performed.

When TRAJENTA is used in combination with a sulfonylurea alone or plus metformin, patients should be advised to take precautions to avoid hypoglycemia while driving or using machinery.

Dosage and Administration

Dosing Considerations

Recommended Dose and Dosage Adjustment

Adults

The recommended dose is 5 mg once daily. TRAJENTA can be taken with or without a meal.

Renal Impairment

No dose adjustment is required for patients with renal impairment.

Use of TRAJENTA in patients with ESRD and those on dialysis should be with caution.

Hepatic Impairment

No dose adjustment is required for patients with mild and moderate hepatic impairment.

Use of TRAJENTA in patients with severe hepatic insufficiency is not recommended.

Geriatrics (≥ 65 years of age)

No dose adjustment is necessary.

Pediatrics (< 18 years of age)

Safety and effectiveness of TRAJENTA in pediatric patients have not been studied. Therefore TRAJENTA should not be used in this patient population.

Missed Dose

If a dose is missed, it should be taken as soon as the patient remembers. A double dose should not be taken on the same day.

Overdosage

For management of a suspected drug overdose, contact your regional Poison Control Centre.

Symptoms

During controlled clinical trials in healthy subjects, single doses of up to 600 mg linagliptin (equivalent to 120 times the recommended dose) were well tolerated. There is no experience with doses above 600mg in humans.

Therapy

In the event of an overdose, it is reasonable to employ the usual supportive measures, e.g., remove unabsorbed material from the gastrointestinal tract, employ clinical monitoring and institute supportive measures as required.

Linagliptin is not expected to be eliminated to a therapeutically significant degree by hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis.

Action and Clinical Pharmacology

Mechanism of Action

Linagliptin is a potent, reversible and selective inhibitor of the enzyme DPP-4 (Dipeptidyl peptidase 4, EC 3.4.14.5) which is involved in the inactivation of the incretin hormones (glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP). These incretin hormones are rapidly degraded by the enzyme DPP-4. Both incretin hormones are involved in the physiological regulation of glucose homeostasis. GLP-1 and GIP are secreted by the intestine at a low basal level throughout the day and concentrations are increased in response to a meal. GLP-1 and GIP increase insulin biosynthesis and secretion from pancreatic beta cells in the presence of normal and elevated blood glucose levels. Furthermore GLP-1 also reduces glucagon secretion from pancreatic alpha cells, resulting in a reduction in hepatic glucose production. Linagliptin binds to DPP-4 in a reversible manner and thus leads to an increase and a prolongation of active incretin levels. Linagliptin glucose-dependently increases insulin secretion and lowers glucagon secretion thus resulting in an overall improvement in the glucose homoeostasis.

Pharmacodynamics

Linagliptin binds selectively to DPP-4 and exhibits a >10,000-fold selectivity vs., closely related proteases DPP-8 or DPP-9 activity in vitro. Linagliptin treatment resulted in an inhibition of plasma DPP-4 in clinical studies. The plasma DPP-4 activity was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner after single dose administration of linagliptin. At steady-state, plasma DPP-4 activity was inhibited over 24 h by more than 80% in most patients receiving 5 mg linagliptin once daily. Linagliptin glucose-dependently increases insulin secretion and lowers glucagon secretion.

Cardiac Electrophysiology

In a randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study, 44 healthy subjects were administered a single oral dose of linagliptin 5 mg, linagliptin 100 mg (20 times the recommended dose), and placebo. No increase in the QTc, PR, or QRS intervals was observed with either the recommended dose of 5 mg or the 100 mg dose. A small increase in heart rate was seen at the linagliptin 100 mg dose, with a peak effect of about 4 bpm at 1 h post-dosing. No significant increase in heart rate was observed after the 5 mg therapeutic dose. The mean Cmax values were 7 nM for the single 5 mg dose and 267 nM for the single 100 mg dose.

Pharmacokinetics

The pharmacokinetics of linagliptin has been extensively characterized in healthy subjects and patients with type 2 diabetes.

Table 7 Summary of linagliptin pharmacokinetic parameters in healthy volunteers
Cmax
(nmol/L)
Tmax (h)AUC 0-24
(nmol*h/L)
Renal clearance CLR (mL/min)
Single oral dose (5 mg) mean8.901.513970

Linagliptin shows non-linear pharmacokinetics in the dose range of 1 to 10 mg, which includes the therapeutic 5 mg dose. As a consequence, the pharmacokinetic parameters are concentration dependent due to the non-linearity exhibited by linagliptin.

After oral administration of a 5 mg dose to healthy subjects, linagliptin was rapidly absorbed, with maximum linagliptin plasma concentrations (Cmax) attained at about 1.5 hours. The Cmax and AUC values increased in a less than dose-proportional manner. Following a 5 mg single oral dose of linagliptin to healthy subjects, the mean plasma AUC0-∞ value for linagliptin was 139 nmol*h/L and the corresponding plasma Cmax value was 8.90 nmol/L. The intra-subject and inter-subject coefficients of variation for linagliptin AUC were 12.6% and 28.5%, respectively. The corresponding values for linagliptin Cmax were 25.1% and 40.3%, respectively.

Plasma concentrations of linagliptin decline in at least biphasic manner with a long terminal half-life (> than 100 hours), that is mostly related to the saturable, tight binding of linagliptin to DPP-4 and does not contribute to the accumulation of the drug. The accumulation half-life of linagliptin, as determined from accumulation after oral administration of multiple doses of 5 mg linagliptin, is approximately 12 hours. After once-daily dosing, steady-state plasma concentrations of 5 mg linagliptin are reached by the third dose. Plasma AUC of linagliptin increased approximately 33% following 5 mg doses at steady-state compared to the first dose. The pharmacokinetics of linagliptin was consistent in healthy subjects and in patients with type 2 diabetes.

The absolute bioavailability of the 10 mg tablet was investigated versus 5 mg given intravenously. As the pharmacokinetics of linagliptin change with increasing plasma concentrations due to concentration-dependent protein binding, a modelling approach was identified as the appropriate method for bioavailability assessment. The absolute bioavailability of the 10 mg tablet was estimated to be around 30%.

Absorption

Linagliptin may be administered with or without food. Co-administration of a high-fat meal with linagliptin had no clinically relevant effect on linagliptin pharmacokinetics. In vitro studies indicated that linagliptin is a substrate of P-glycoprotein (see Drug-Drug Interactions).

Distribution

As a result of tissue binding, the mean apparent volume of distribution at steady-state following a single 5 mg intravenous dose of linagliptin to healthy subjects is approximately 1110 litres, indicating that linagliptin extensively distributes to the tissues. Plasma protein binding of linagliptin is concentration-dependent, decreasing from about 99% at 1 nmol/L to 75-89% at ≥30 nmol/L, reflecting saturation of binding to DPP-4 with increasing concentration of linagliptin. At high concentrations (>30 n M) the plasma protein binding of linagliptin was constant with a moderate bound fraction between 70-80%. Plasma binding was not altered in patients with renal or hepatic impairment.

Metabolism

Following oral administration, the majority (about 90%) of linagliptin was excreted unchanged, indicating that metabolism represents a minor elimination pathway. In vitro studies indicated that linagliptin is a substrate of CYP3A4 (see Drug-Drug Interactions). A small fraction of absorbed linagliptin is metabolized to a pharmacologically inactive metabolite, which shows a steady-state exposure of 13.3% relative to linagliptin.

Excretion

Following oral administration of 10 mg [C] linagliptin dose to healthy subjects, approximately 85% of radioactivity was recovered in faeces (80%) and urine (5.4%) within 4 days of dosing. Renal clearance at steady-state (CLR,ss) was approximately 70 mL/min.

Special Populations and Conditions

Pediatric (<18 years of age)

Studies characterizing the pharmacokinetics of linagliptin in pediatric patients have not yet been performed. Therefore, TRAJENTA should not be used in this patient population.

Geriatric (≥ 65 years of age)

No dose adjustment is required based on age, as age did not have a clinically relevant impact on the pharmacokinetics of linagliptin based on a population pharmacokinetic analysis. Elderly subjects (65 to 80 years) had comparable plasma concentrations of linagliptin compared to younger subjects.

Gender

No dose adjustment is required based on gender. Gender had no clinically relevant effect on the pharmacokinetics of linagliptin based on a population pharmacokinetic analysis.

Race

No dose adjustment is required based on race. Race had no obvious effect on the plasma concentrations of linagliptin based on a composite analysis of available pharmacokinetic data.

Body Mass Index (BMI)

No dose adjustment is required based on BMI.

Renal Impairment

A multiple-dose, open-label study was conducted to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of linagliptin (5 mg dose) in patients (n=6 in each group) with mild and moderate renal impairment compared to subjects with normal renal function. A single-dose pharmacokinetic study of linagliptin was conducted in patients with severe renal impairment (n=6) and End Stage Renal Disease (n=6). The studies included patients with renal impairment classified on the basis of creatinine clearance as mild (50 to 80 mL/min), moderate (30 to 50 mL/min), and severe (<30 mL/min), as well as patients with End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) on hemodialysis. In addition, patients with T2DM and severe renal impairment (n=10) were compared to T2DM patients with normal renal function (n=11) in a multiple-dose study.

Creatinine clearance was measured by 24-hour urinary creatinine clearance measurements or estimated from serum creatinine based on the Cockcroft-Gault formula:

After a single oral dose of linagliptin, exposure was 1.2 - to 1.6 - fold higher for patients with renal impairment (with or without T2DM) than for subjects with normal renal function (with or without T2DM).

Under steady-state conditions, (oral administration of multiple 5 mg doses), pharmacokinetic characteristics in patients with mild renal impairment were comparable to those of subjects with normal renal function. An overall increase in AUCτ,ss exposure of approximately 1.1 to 1.7-fold was observed for patients with mild or moderate renal impairment (without T2DM) or severe renal impairment (with T2DM) relative to controls with normal renal function (with or without T2DM). Because increases of this magnitude are not clinically relevant, dosage adjustment in patients with renal impairment is not required. In addition linagliptin trough concentrations measured in phase III were similar in patients with mild, moderate or severe renal impairment and patients with normal renal function. There is lack of clinical experience with linagliptin in patients with ESRD and those on dialysis. Use in these patients should be with caution.

Hepatic Impairment

In patients with mild or moderate hepatic insufficiency (according to the Child-Pugh classification), mean AUC and Cmax of linagliptin were similar to healthy matched controls following administration of multiple 5 mg doses of linagliptin. No dose adjustment for linagliptin is required for patients with mild or moderate hepatic impairment. While Phase I data showed no clinical relevant effect of severe hepatic impairment on linagliptin pharmacokinetics following administration of single 5 mg dose, use in these patients is not recommended due to lack of clinical experience.

Storage and Stability

Store at room temperature (15-30°C).

Special Handling Instructions

Store in a safe place and out of the reach of children.

Dosage Forms, Composition and Packaging

TRAJENTA tablets for oral administration contain 5 mg linagliptin.

Non-medicinal ingredients: mannitol, pregelatinised starch, maize starch, copovidone and magnesium stearate. The film coating contains hypromellose, titanium dioxide, talc, macrogol and iron oxide red.

TRAJENTA tablets are available as light red, round, biconvex, bevel-edged film-coated tablets, one side debossed with Boehringer Ingelheim company symbol, the other side debossed with “D5”.

TRAJENTA is available in blister packs of 30 and 90 tablets.