Supprelin LA - Scientific Information
|Manufacture:||Endo Pharmaceuticals Inc.|
|Condition:||Prostate Cancer, Precocious Puberty|
|Class:||Gonadotropin releasing hormones, Hormones/antineoplastics|
|Form:||Liquid solution, Subcutaneous (SC)|
|Ingredients:||histrelin acetate, a synthetic nonapeptide analog of the naturally occurring gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)|
SUPPRELIN LA is a sterile, non-biodegradable, diffusion-controlled, hydrogel polymer reservoir containing histrelin acetate, a synthetic nonapeptide analog of the naturally occurring gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) possessing a greater potency than the natural sequence hormone. SUPPRELIN LA is designed to deliver approximately 65 mcg histrelin acetate per day over 12 months.
The SUPPRELIN LA implant looks like a small thin flexible tube and consists of a 50-mg histrelin acetate drug core inside a 3.5 cm by 3 mm, cylindrical, hydrogel polymer reservoir (Figure 1). The implant may appear partially to completely full with variation in color from off-white to light brown. The color may be uneven within the core.
The chemical name of histrelin acetate is: L-Pyroglutamyl-L-histidyl-L-tryptophyl-L-seryl-L-tyrosyl-N-benzyl-D-histidyl-L-leucyl-L-arginyl-L-proline N-ethylamide, acetate salt.
The molecular formula for histrelin acetate is C66H86 N18O12 x 2 CH3COOH and its molecular weight is 1443.70 (or 1323.52 as free base). Histrelin is also chemically described as 5-oxo-L-prolyl-L-histidyl-L-tryptophyl-L-seryl-L-tyrosyl-Nt-benzyl-D-histidyl- L-leucyl-L-arginyl-N-ethyl-L-prolinamide diacetate. The chemical structure of the free base (histrelin) is represented below in Figure 2.
The drug core also contains the inactive ingredient stearic acid NF. The hydrogel polymer reservoir is a hydrophilic cartridge composed of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, 2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate, trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate, benzoin methyl ether, Perkadox-16, and Triton X-100. Each implant is packaged hydrated in a glass vial containing 2 mL of sterile 1.8% sodium chloride solution, so that it is primed for immediate release of the drug upon insertion.
A single use, sterile, Insertion Tool is provided along with the implant that can be used for the placement of the SUPPRELIN LA implant into the subcutaneous tissue of the inner aspect of the upper arm. The Insertion Tool is enclosed in a sterile bag and is provided separately from the implant in the Implantation Kit [see Recommended Procedure for Implant Insertion and Removal].
Mechanism of Action
SUPPRELIN LA is a GnRH agonist and an inhibitor of gonadotropin secretion when given continuously. It delivers approximately 65 mcg histrelin acetate per day. Both animal and human studies indicate that following an initial stimulatory phase, chronic, subcutaneous administration of histrelin acetate desensitizes responsiveness of the pituitary gonadotropin which, in turn causes a reduction in ovarian and testicular steroidogenesis.
In humans, administration of histrelin acetate results in an initial increase in circulating levels of LH and FSH, leading to a transient increase in concentration of gonadal steroids (testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in males, and estrone and estradiol in premenopausal females).
However, continuous administration of histrelin acetate causes a reversible down-regulation of the GnRH receptors in the pituitary gland and desensitization of the pituitary gonadotropes. These inhibitory effects result in decreased levels of LH and FSH.
Long-term treatment with histrelin acetate suppresses the LH response to GnRH causing LH levels to decrease to prepubertal levels within 1 month of treatment. As a result, serum concentrations of sex steroids (estrogen or testosterone) also decrease. Consequently, secondary sexual development ceases to progress in most patients. Additionally, linear growth velocity is slowed which improves the chance of attaining predicted adult height.
Pharmacokinetics of histrelin after implantation of SUPPRELIN LA was evaluated in a total of 47 children with CPP (11 subjects in Study 1 and 36 subjects in Study 2). Patients were examined at 4 weeks after implant insertion and a few times throughout the treatment period. Median serum histrelin concentrations remained above the limit of quantification for the treatment period. Histrelin acetate levels were sustained throughout the study period for most subjects (Figure 3). The median of maximum serum histrelin concentrations over the study period was 0.43 ng/mL, which is expected to maintain gonadotropins at prepubertal levels. There was no apparent pharmacokinetic difference between naïve subjects to a LHRH agonist treatment and subjects who had previous treatment with a LHRH agonist (Figure 3).
Figure 3. Mean and Standard Deviation of Serum Histrelin Concentrations (ng/mL) Results at Each Visit
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
Carcinogenicity studies were conducted in rats for 2 years at doses of 5, 25 or150 mcg/kg/day (up to 11 times human exposures using body surface area comparisons, based on a 65 mcg/day dose in humans) and in mice for 18 months at doses of 20, 200, or 2000 mcg/kg/day (at less than therapeutic exposure to 70 times human exposure using body surface area comparisons, based on a 65 mcg/day dose in humans). As seen with other GnRH agonists, histrelin injection administration was associated with an increase in tumors of hormonally responsive tissues. There was a significant increase in pituitary adenomas in rats at mid and high doses (2-11 times human exposure based on body surface area comparisons with a 65 mcg/day human dose). There was an increase in pancreatic islet-cell adenomas in treated female rats and a non-dose-related increase in testicular Leydig-cell tumors (highest incidence in the low-dose group). In mice, there was significant increase in mammary-gland adenocarcinomas in all treated females. In addition, there were increases in stomach papillomas in male rats given high doses, and an increase in histiocytic sarcomas in female mice at the highest dose.
Mutagenicity studies have not been performed with histrelin acetate. Saline extracts of implants with and without histrelin acetate were negative in a battery of genotoxicity studies. Fertility studies have been conducted in rats and monkeys given subcutaneous daily doses of histrelin acetate up to 180 mcg/kg/day (up to 13 and 30 times human exposure, respectively using body surface area comparisons, based on a 65 mcg/day human dose) for 6 months and full reversibility of fertility suppression was demonstrated. The development and reproductive performance of offspring from parents treated with histrelin acetate has not been investigated.
The efficacy of SUPPRELIN LA in children with CPP has been evaluated in two single- arm, open label studies. Study 1 was conducted in 11 pretreated female patients, 3.7 to 11.0 years of age. Study 2 was conducted in 36 patients (33 females and 3 males), 4.5 to 11.6 years of age. Sixteen pretreated and 20 treatment-naïve patients were enrolled in Study 2. Baseline patient characteristics were typical of patients with CPP. Efficacy assessments were similar in both studies and included endpoints that measured the suppression of gonadotropins (luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone) and gonadal sex steroids (estrogen in girls and testosterone in boys, respectively) on treatment. Other assessments were clinical (evidence of stabilization or regression of signs of puberty) or gonadal steroid-dependent (bone age, linear growth). In Study 2, the primary measure of efficacy was LH suppression.
In Study 2, suppression of LH was induced in all treatment naïve subjects and maintained in all pretreated subjects at Month 1 after implantation and continued through Month 12 (suppression was defined as a peak LH < 4 mIU/mL following stimulation with the GnRH analog leuprolide acetate).
Secondary efficacy hormone assessments (FSH, estradiol and testosterone) and additional efficacy assessments (bone age advancement, linear growth, clinical progression of puberty) indicated stabilization of disease. Estradiol suppression was present in all 33 girls (100%) through Month 9 and 97% at Month 12. Testosterone suppression was maintained in the three pre- treated males participating in Study 2. The SUPPRELIN LA effect on efficacy endpoints in the Study 1 was consistent with that observed in Study 2.