Saloflak - Scientific Information
|Condition:||Crohn's Disease, Maintenance, Crohn's Disease, Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Ulcerative Colitis, Ulcerative Colitis, Active, Ulcerative Colitis, Maintenance, Ulcerative Proctitis|
|Ingredients:||mesalamine, carnauba wax, colloidal silicon dioxide, glycine, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, iron oxide, magnesium stearate, methacrylic acid copolymer, microcrystalline cellulose, polydimethyl siloxane, polysorbate, povidone, sodium carbonate, sodium hydroxide, talc, titanium dioxide, triethyl citrate|
|Proper name:||5-aminosalicylic acid, mesalamine|
|Chemical name:||5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA)|
|Molecular formula and molecular mass:||C7H7NO3 153.14|
|Description:||5-aminosalicylic acid is a light tan to pink, needle shaped,|
|Solubility:||Slightly soluble in water, very slightly soluble in methanol and|
practically insoluble in chloroform; soluble in diluted HCl and
diluted alkali hydroxides.
A placebo-controlled, parallel group, multicentre study was conducted in 136 out-patients with ulcerative colitis. Patients were administered SALOFALK tablets at doses of 4 g/day (n=47) and 2 g/day (n=45), or placebo (n=44) for 6 weeks. At Week 3, patients in the 4 g mesalamine group were rated less severe than placebo patients for rectal bleeding, mucosal appearance and physician’s overall rating of disease severity (p<0.05). Although there was improvement for patients in the 2 g mesalamine group relative to placebo, differences between the two groups were not statistically significant. Similar differences between the two groups were seen at Week 6.
In an 8 week randomized, double-blind, parallel group study mesalamine tablets (1.5 g/day) were compared to sulfasalazine (3.0 g/day) in patients with mild to moderate ulcerative colitis. Of the 164 patients eligible for efficacy analysis, 87 received mesalamine and 77 sulfasalazine. After 4 weeks, 71% and 66% of patients taking mesalamine and sulfasalazine, respectively, had achieved remission (p=0.338). At 8 weeks, 74% and 81% achieved remission, respectively (p=0.835). Endoscopic remission at 8 weeks was recorded in 49% of patients taking mesalamine and 47% taking sulfasalazine (p=0.272).
Recurrence of Crohn’s disease after surgical resection was investigated in a randomized, controlled study in which patients received 1.5 g mesalamine tablets twice a day or placebo, within 8 weeks following surgery, for up to 72 months. At yearly intervals, patients were assessed. Symptomatic recurrence was defined as having symptoms judged to be caused by Crohn’s disease that required treatment plus radiological or endoscopic evidence of disease. The symptomatic recurrence rate in the treatment group was 31% (27 of 87) compared with 41% (31 of 76) in the control group (p=0.031). Using an intent-to-treat analysis, the relative risk of developing recurrent disease was 0.628 (90% CI, 0.40-0.97) for patients in the treatment group (p=0.039; one-tail test) and 0.532 (90% CI, 0.32-0.87) using an efficacy analysis. The endoscopic and radiological rate of recurrence was also significantly decreased with a risk of 0.635 (90%, CI 0.44-0.91) for the efficacy analysis.
5-ASA (mesalamine) is the active moiety of the prodrug sulfasalazine which acts to suppress inflammatory bowel disease. Animal pharmacology tests were conducted on 5-ASA using the oral route of administration for most tests, at a dose of 500 mg/kg in order to simulate practice relevant conditions. No adverse effect of 5-ASA on the following parameters or in the following animal pharmacology tests could be established: tremorine antagonism, hexobarbital sleep time, motor activity, anticonvulsant action (metrazol and electric shock), blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate (up to 10 mg/kg, i.v.), tocolysis (antispasmodic assay), local anaesthesia, antihyperthermal and antipyretic effects. In the paw-edema test with carrageen injection, 200 mg/kg per os proved ineffective, but 500 mg/kg 5-ASA per os exhibited mild antiphlogistic action.
In the animal renal function tests (natriuresis and diuresis), no biologically relevant effects of 200 mg/kg per os were demonstrated. After 600 mg/kg, marked functional changes were observed: increases in total urinary output, natriuresis and proteinuria. The urinary sediment contained an increased number of erythrocytes and epithelial cells. Both potassium elimination and specify weight were reduced. It can be concluded from these experiments that even high doses of 5-ASA have no effect on vital parameters. Disturbances in renal function are to be expected only at dosages equivalent to a single dose at least 8 to 10 times the daily dose in man.
See Action and Clinical Pharmacology.
Animal studies to date show the kidney to be the only significant target organ for 5-ASA toxicity in rats and dogs. At high doses, the lesions produced consisted of papillary necrosis and multifocal proximal tubular injury. In rats, the no-effect levels were 160 mg/kg/day for females and 40 mg/kg/day for males (minimal and reversible tubular lesions seen) after 13 weeks of oral administration. In dogs, the no-effect level in both males and females was 40 mg/kg/day after 6 months of oral administration. In this six-month oral toxicity study in dogs, doses of 80 mg/kg/day and higher, caused renal pathology similar to that described for the rat. In a rectal toxicity study of mesalamine suppositories in dogs, a dose of 166.6 mg/kg (about 3.0 times the recommended human intra-rectal dose, based on body surface area) produced chronic nephritis and pyelitis. Aside from gastric lesions, heart lesions and bone marrow depression seen in some of the rats at the 640 mg/kg level and considered secondary effects of kidney damage, no other signs of systemic toxicity were noted at daily doses up to 160 mg/kg in rats and 120 mg/kg in dogs for 13 weeks and six months, respectively.
In the 12-month oral toxicity study in dogs, keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) occurred at oral doses of 40 mg/kg/day and above.
Administration of doses of 0, 50, 100 and 320 mg/kg/day for 127 weeks in rats did not result in significant differences in unscheduled deaths, clinical signs, nodules or masses, between groups. Ophthalmoscopic investigations revealed no treatment-related changes. Treatment with SALOFALK was not associated with oncogenic changes or an increased tumor risk. The assessment of hematology, clinical biochemistry and urinalysis indicated no changes of toxicological significance at 13, 26 and 52 weeks of treatment.
After 127 weeks, analysis of the lesions indicated slight substance-related and dosedependent toxic changes as degenerative kidney damage and hyalinization of tubular basement membrane and Bowman’s capsule in the 100 mg and 320 mg/kg/day groups. Ulceration of the gastric mucosa and atrophy of the seminal vesicles were also more frequent in the 320 mg/kg/day group.
5-ASA was not mutagenic in the Ames test, E. coli reverse mutation assay, mouse micronucleus test, sister chromatid exchange assay, or in a chromosomal aberrations assay. In contrast, sulfapyridine, which is the other primary metabolite of salicylazosulfapyridine, has tested positive in certain mutagenicity tests
Teratology studies with 5-ASA have been performed in rats at oral doses up to 320 mg/kg/day and in rabbits at oral doses up to 495 mg/kg/day. The battery of tests completed to date has shown that 5-ASA is devoid of embryotoxicity and teratogenicity in rats and rabbits; that it does not affect male rat fertility after five weeks of oral administration at 296 mg/kg/day; and that it lacks the potential to affect late pregnancy, delivery, lactation or pup development in rats.
Nephrotoxic potential of 5-aminosalicylic acid
Owing to its structural relationship to phenacetin, the aminophenols and salicylates, 5-ASA was included in a series of compounds studied following identification of antipyretic-analgesic nephropathy in humans. Calder et al. has reported in rats that in addition to the roximal tubule necrosis seen with acetylsalicylic acid (e.g. Aspirin) and phenacetin derivatives, 5-ASA produced papillary necrosis, following single intravenous doses ranging from 150 mg/kg to 872 mg/kg.
Diener et al have shown that oral doses of 5-ASA of 30 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg daily for four weeks failed to produce any adverse effects on kidney function or histology in rat.
In a 13-week rat study, there were no renal lesions after four weeks in the animals receiving up to 160 mg/kg orally per day, but severe papillary necrosis and proximal tubular injury were seen in most animals receiving 640 mg/kg orally per day. At 13 weeks, the female animals were free of pathology up to 160 mg/kg; minimal and reversible lesions in the tubules occurred in a few males (with no changes in renal function) at the 40 mg/kg/day level. After six months of oral administration in dogs, no toxicity was seen in the 40 mg/kg/day group. At 80 mg/kg/day, two of eight treated dogs showed slight to moderate renal papillary necrosis. These dogs as well as two others showed minimal to moderate tubular lesions. At 120 mg/kg/day, two females had slight papillary necrosis. These and two others showed minimal to moderate tubule injury.