Propofol Injection: Indications, Dosage, Precautions, Adverse Effects
Россия
  • Россия
  • Украина

Propofol Injection - Product Information

Manufacture: Fresenius Kabi USA, LLC
Country: United States
Condition: Anesthesia, Sedation
Class: General anesthetics
Form: Intravenous (IV), Powder
Ingredients: Propofol, Soybean Oil, Glycerin, Egg Phospholipids, Oleic Acid, Sodium Hydroxide

Propofol Injectable Emulsion, Mfr. Std. 10 mg/mL

Summary Product Information

Route of Administration Dosage Form / Strength All Nonmedicinal Ingredients
Parenteral - Intravenous Emulsion / 10 mg/mL - Soybean oil, medium-chain triglycerides, oleic acid, purified egg phospholipids, glycerol, sodium hydroxide, nitrogen and water for injection.

Indications and Clinical Use

Adults (>18 years of age)

Propofol Injection is indicated for:

  • Induction and maintenance of general anaesthesia
  • Conscious sedation for surgical and diagnostic procedures
  • Sedation during intensive care

Propofol Injection is a short-acting i.v. general anaesthetic agent, that can be used for bothinduction and maintenance of anaesthesia as part of a balanced anaesthesia technique, including total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA), for inpatient and outpatient surgery.

Propofol Injection, when administered i.v. as directed, can be used to initiate and maintain sedation in conjunction with local/regional anaesthesia in adult patients undergoing surgical procedures. Propofol Injection may also be used for sedation during diagnostic procedures in adult (see Warnings and Precautions, General).

Propofol Injection should only be administered to intubated, mechanically ventilated, adult patients in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) to provide continuous sedation and control of stress responses. In this setting, Propofol Injection should be administered only by or under the supervision of persons trained in general anaesthesia or critical care medicine.

Geriatrics (> 65 years of age)

Elderly patients should be given reduced doses of Propofol Injection, commensurate with their age and physical condition(see Warnings and Precautions, Special Populations and Dosage and Administration).

Pediatrics (≥ 3 years of age)

Propofol Injection is only indicated for anaesthesia in children 3 years of age and older.

Pediatrics (≤ 18 years of age)

Propofol Injection is not recommended for sedation or during surgical/diagnostic procedures in children under the age of 18, as safety and efficacy have not been established in this patient population. (see Warnings and Precautions, Special Populations and Dosage and Administration).

Contraindications

Propofol Injection is contraindicated:

  • For the sedation of children 18 years or younger receiving intensive care (see Dosage and Administration)
  • When sedation or general anaesthesia are contraindicated
  • In patients with a known allergy and/or hypersensitivity to Propofol Injection or to lipid emulsions or any of the components (see Dosage Forms, Composition and Packaging, Composition).

Warnings and Precautions

Administration

Strict aseptic techniques must always be maintained during handling as Propofol Injection is a single-use parenteral product, for use in an individual patient, and contains no antimicrobial preservatives. The vehicle is capable of supporting rapid growth of microorganism (see Dosage and Administration). Failure to follow aseptic handling procedures may result in microbial contamination causing fever/infection/sepsis, which could lead to life-threatening illness and death.

For general anaesthesia or sedation for surgical/diagnostic procedures, Propofol Injection should be administered only by persons trained in the administration of general anaesthesia and not involved in the conduct of surgical/diagnostic procedures. Patients should be continuously monitored and facilities for maintenance of a patent airway, artificial ventilation, and oxygen enrichment and circulatory resuscitation must be immediately available.

For sedation of intubated, mechanically ventilated, adult patients in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Propofol Injection should be administered only by persons trained in general anaesthesia or critical care medicine.

As with other general anaesthetics, the administration of Propofol Injection without airway care may result in fatal respiratory complications.

Extreme care should be used in administering Propofol Injection in elderly, debilitated or other ASA III or IV patients. In the elderly, debilitated and ASA III or IV patients, rapid (single or repeated) bolus administration should not be used during general anaesthesia or sedation in order to minimize undesirable cardiorespiratory depression including hypotension, apnea, airway obstruction and/or oxygen desaturation.

Propofol Infusion Syndrome (PRIS)

Use of propofol injectable emulsion infusions for both adult and pediatric ICU sedation has been associated with a constellation of metabolic derangements and organ system failures, referred to as Propofol Infusion Syndrome, that have resulted in death.

The syndrome is characterized by severe metabolic acidosis, hyperkalemia, lipemia, rhabdomyolysis, hepatomegaly, cardiac and renal failure. The syndrome is most often associated with prolonged, high-dose infusions (> 5 mg/kg/h for > 48h) but has also been reported following large-dose, short-term infusions during surgical anaesthesia. The following appear to be the major risk factors for the development of these events: decreased oxygen delivery to tissues; serious neurological injury and/or sepsis; high dosages of one or more of the following pharmacological agents - vasoconstrictors, steroids, inotropes and/or propofol.

Very rarely reports of metabolic acidosis, rhabdomyolosis, hyperkalaemia, Brugada-type ECG changes (coved ST segment elevation, similar to the Brugada syndrome) and cardiac failure, in some cases with a fatal outcome, have been received concerning seriously ill patients receiving propofol for ICU sedation (see Adverse Reactions, Post-Market Adverse Drug Reactions).

The following appear to be the major risk factors for the development of these events: decreased oxygen delivery to tissues; serious neurological injury and/or sepsis; high doses of one or more of the following pharmacological agents – vasoconstrictors, steroids, inotropes and/or propofol.

All sedatives and therapeutic agents used in the ICU (including propofol) should be titrated to maintain optimal oxygen delivery and haemodynamic parameters.

General

Extreme care should be used in administering Propofol Injection in patients with impaired left ventricular function because Propofol Injection may produce a negative inotropic effect.

Extreme care should be used in administering Propofol Injection in patients who are hypotensive, hypovolemic or in shock because Propofol Injection may cause excessive arterial hypotension.

Propofol Injection lacks vagolytic activity and has been associated with reports of bradycardia, (occasionally profound) and also asystole. The intravenous administration of an anticholinergic agent before induction, or during maintenance of anaesthesia should be considered, especially in situations where vagal tone is likely to predominate or when Propofol Injection is used in conjunction with other agents likely to cause a bradycardia.

Propofol Injection should not be co-administered through the same i.v. catheter with blood or plasma because compatibility has not been established. In vitro tests have shown that aggregates of the globular component of the emulsion vehicle have occurred with blood/plasma/serum from humans and animals. The clinical significance is not known.

The neuromuscular blocking agents, atracurium and mivacurium should not be given through the same i.v. line as Propofol Injection without prior flushing.

The administration of Propofol Injection should be initiated as a continuous infusion and changes in the rate of administration made slowly (> 5 min) in order to minimize hypotension and avoid acute overdosage.

Since Propofol Injection is formulated in an oil-water emulsion, patients should be monitored for lipemia. Administration of Propofol Injection should be adjusted if fat is being inadequately cleared from the body. A reduction in the quantity of concurrently administered lipids is indicated to compensate for the amount of lipid infused as part of the Propofol Injection formulation; 1.0 mL of Propofol Injection contains approximately 0.1 g of fat (1.1 kcal).

In adults and children, attention should be paid to minimize pain on administration of propofol. Transient local pain during intravenous injection may be reduced by prior injection of i.v. lidocaine (1.0 mL of a 1% solution).

Cardiovascular

Patients should be monitored for early signs of significant hypotension and/or cardiovascular depression, which may be profound. These effects are responsive to discontinuation of Propofol Injection, i.v. fluid administration, and/or vasopressor therapy.

Cardiac Anaesthesia

Propofol injectable emulsion was evaluated in 328 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). Of these patients 85% were males (mean age 61, range 32 - 83) and 15% were females (mean age 65, range 42 - 86).

The majority of patients undergoing CABG had good left ventricular function. Experience in patients with poor left ventricular function, as well as, in patients with hemodynamically significant valvular or congenital heart disease is limited.

Slower rates of administration should be utilized in premedicated patients, geriatric patients, patients with recent fluid shift, or patients who are hemodynamically unstable. Any fluid deficits should be corrected prior to administration of Propofol Injection. In those patients where additional fluid therapy may be contraindicated, other measures, e.g. elevation of lower extremities, or use of pressor agents, may be useful to offset the hypotension which is associated with the induction of anaesthesia with Propofol Injection.

Endocrine and Metabolism

Propofol Injection should not be used for Intensive Care Unit (ICU) sedation in patients who have severely disordered fat metabolism because the vehicle of Propofol Injection is similar to that of INTRALIPID 10%. The restrictions that apply to INTRALIPID 10% should also be considered when using Propofol Injection in the ICU.

Hepatic/Biliary/Pancreatic

The long-term administration of propofol injectable emulsion to patients with hepatic insufficiency has not been evaluated.

Immune System Disorder

Use of propofol injectable emulsion has been associated with both fatal and life threatening anaphylactic and anaphylactoid reactions.

Neurologic

Neurosurgical Anaesthesia

When using Propofol Injection in patients with increased intracranial pressure (ICP) or impaired cerebral circulation, significant decreases in mean arterial pressure should be avoided because of the resultant decreases in cerebral perfusion pressure. When increased ICP is suspected, hyperventilation and hypocarbia should accompany the administration of Propofol Injection (see Dosage and Administration).

Epilepsy

Since various manifestations of seizures have been reported during propofol injectable emulsion anaesthesia, special care should be taken when giving the drug to epileptic patients.

Locomotion and Coordination

Patients receiving Propofol Injection on an outpatient basis should not engage in hazardous activities requiring complete mental alertness such as driving a motor vehicle or operating machinery until the effects of Propofol Injection have completely subsided.

Perioperative Considerations

As with other sedative medications, there is wide interpatient variability in Propofol Injection dosage requirements, and these requirements may change with time.

Patients who receive large doses of narcotics during surgery may require very small doses of Propofol Injection for appropriate sedation.

When Propofol Injection is administered as a sedative for surgical or diagnostic procedures, patients should be continuously monitored by persons not involved in the conduct of the surgical/ diagnostic procedure. Oxygen supplementation should be immediately available and provided where clinically indicated; and oxygen saturation should be monitored in all patients. Patients should be continuously monitored for early signs of hypotension, apnea, airway obstruction and/or oxygen desaturation. These cardiorespiratory effects are more likely to occur following rapid initiation (loading) boluses or during supplemental maintenance boluses, especially in the elderly, debilitated and ASA III or IV patients.

Patients should be continuously monitored for early signs of significant hypotension and/or bradycardia. Treatment may include increasing the rate of intravenous fluid, elevation of lower extremities, use of pressor agents or administration of anticholinergic agents (e.g., atropine) or use of plasma volume expanders. Apnea often occurs during induction and may persist for more than 60 seconds. Ventilatory support may be required. Because Propofol Injection is a lipid emulsion, caution should be exercised in patients with disorders of lipid metabolism such as primary hyperlipoproteinemia, diabetic hyperlipemia and pancreatitis.

As with other sedative agents, when Propofol Injection is used for sedation during operative procedures, involuntary patient movements may occur. During procedures requiring immobility these movements may be hazardous to the operative site.

Abrupt discontinuation of Propofol Injection infusion prior to weaning should be avoided since, due to the rapid clearance of Propofol Injection, it may result in rapid awakening with associated anxiety, agitation and resistance to mechanical ventilation. Infusions of Propofol Injection should be adjusted to maintain a light level of sedation throughout the weaning process.

Since Propofol Injection is rarely used alone, an adequate period of evaluation of the awakened patient is indicated to ensure satisfactory recovery from general anaesthesia or sedation prior to discharge of the patient from the recovery room or to home. Very rarely the use of Propofol Injection may be associated with the development of a period of postoperative unconsciousness, which may be accompanied by an increase in muscle tone. This may or may not be preceded by a period of wakefulness. Although recovery is spontaneous, appropriate care of an unconscious patient should be administered.

Renal

The long-term administration of propofol injectable emulsion to patients with renal failure has not been evaluated.

Special Populations

Pregnant Women

Propofol Injection should not be used during pregnancy. Propofol injectable emulsion has been used during termination of pregnancy in the first trimester. Teratology studies in rats and rabbits show some evidence of delayed ossification or abnormal cranial ossification, however such developmental delays are not considered indicative of a teratogenic effect. Reproductive studies in rats suggest that administration of propofol injectable emulsion to the dam adversely affects perinatal survival of the offspring.

Labour and Delivery

Propofol Injection should not be used in obstetrics including Caesarean section deliveries, because propofol crosses the placenta and may be associated with neonatal depression.

Nursing Women

Propofol Injection is not recommended for use in nursing women because preliminary findings indicate that it is excreted in human milk and the effects of oral absorption of small amounts of Propofol Injection are not known.

Pediatrics (≤ 18 years of age)

In the absence of sufficient clinical experience, Propofol Injection is not recommended for anaesthesia in children less than 3 years of age (see Indications and Clinical Use and Dosage and Administration).

Geriatrics (> 65 years of age)

Elderly patients may be more sensitive to the effects of propofol injectable emulsion; therefore, the dosage of Propofol Injection should be reduced in these patients according to their condition and clinical response (see Dosage and Administration) and Detailed Pharmacology, Pharmacokinetics.

Adverse Reactions

Frequencies of adverse events are reported as follows:

Very common (≥ 10%)

Common (≥ 1% - < 10%)

Uncommon (≥ 0.1% - < 1%)

Rare (≥ 0.01% - < 0.1%)

Very Rare (< 0.01%)

Adverse Drug Reaction Overview

Anaesthesia and Sedation for Surgical/Diagnostic Procedures

During induction of anaesthesia in clinical trials, hypotension and apnea occurred in the majority of patients. The incidence of apnea varied considerably, occurring in between 30 and 100% of patients depending upon premedication, speed of administration and dose (see Action and Clinical Pharmacology). Decreases in systolic and diastolic pressures ranged between 10 and 28%, but were more profound in the elderly and in ASA III and IV patients.

Excitatory phenomena occurred in up to 14% of adult patients and in 33 to 90% of pediatric patients; they consisted most frequently of spontaneous musculoskeletal movements and twitching and jerking of the hands, arms, feet or legs. Epileptiform movements including convulsions and opisthotonus have occurred rarely, but a causal relationship with propofol injectable emulsion has not been established. A feeling of euphoria occurred rarely in patients.

Flushing and rash have occurred in 10 to 25% of pediatric patients. Local pain occurred during intravenous injection of propofol injectable emulsion at an incidence of 28% when veins of the dorsum of the hand were used and 5% when the larger veins of the forearm and the antecubital fossa were used. Propofol injectable emulsion increased plasma glucose concentrations significantly, but no other significant changes in hematological or biochemical values were observed.

In the sedation clinical trials, the adverse reaction profile of propofol injectable emulsion was similar to that seen during anaesthesia. The most common adverse reactions included hypotension, nausea, pain and/or hotness at injection site and headache. Respiratory events included upper airway obstruction, apnea, hypoventilation, dyspnea and cough.

Rarely, clinical features of anaphylaxis, which may include angioedema, bronchospasm, erythema and hypotension, occur following propofol injectable emulsion administration. In addition, a feeling of euphoria occurred rarely in patients.

Very rarely the use of propofol injectable emulsion may be associated with the development of a period of postoperative unconsciousness, which may be accompanied by an increase in muscle tone. This may or may not be preceded by a period of wakefulness.

There have been reports of postoperative fever.

Pulmonary oedema may be a potential side effect associated with the use of propofol injectable emulsion.

As with other anaesthetics, sexual disinhibition may occur during recovery.

Intensive Care Unit (ICU) Sedation - Adults

The most frequent adverse reactions during Intensive Care Unit (ICU) sedation were hypotension (31.5%), hypoxia (6.3%), and hyperlipemia (5.5%). In some patients, hypotension was severe. Other reactions considered severe were observed in single patients and included ventricular tachycardia, decreased cardiac output, decrease in vital capacity and negative inspiratory force, increase in triglycerides, and agitation. Two patients with head injury suffered renal failure with severe increases in BUN accompanied in one patient by an increase in creatinine.

There have been very rare reports of rhabdomyolysis when propofol injectable emulsion has been administered at doses greater than 4 mg/kg/hr for ICU sedation.

Very rarely pancreatitis has been observed following the use of propofol injectable emulsion for induction and maintenance of anaesthesia, and for intensive care sedation. A causal relationship has not been clearly established.

Clinical Trial Adverse Drug Reactions

Because clinical trials are conducted under very specific conditions the adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials may not reflect the rates observed in practice and should not be compared to the rates in the clinical trials of another drug. Adverse drug reaction information from clinical trials is useful for identifying drug-related adverse events and for approximating rates.

The following table compares the overall occurrence rates of adverse reactions in propofol injectable emulsion patients from non-ICU and ICU clinical trials where the rate of occurrence was greater than 1%. Major differences include lack of metabolic/nutritional (hyperlipemia) and respiratory events in the non-ICU group and lack of nausea, vomiting, headache, movement and injection site events in the ICU group.

Table 1: Non-ICU vs. ICU adverse events occurring in greater than 1% of propofol patients.
Body System Event Non-ICU ICU
Number of patients 2588 127
Cardiovascular Hypotension 7.38% 31.50%
Bradycardia 2.82% 3.94%
Hypertension 2.82% 1.57%
Arrhythmia 1.24% 0.79%
Tachycardia 0.81% 3.15%
Cardiovascular Disorder 0.23% 2.36%
Hemorrhage 0.23% 1.57%
Atrial Fibrillation 0.15% 1.57%
Cardiac Arrest 0.12% 3.15%
Ventricular Tachycardia 0.08% 1.57%
Digestive Nausea 14.57% 0%
Vomiting 8.31% 10%
Abdominal Cramping 1.24% 0%
Nervous Movement 4.44% 0%
Headache 1.78% 0%
Dizziness 1.70% 0%
Twitching 1.47%/td> 0%
Agitation 0.19% 2.36%
Intracranial Hypertension 0% 3.94%
Metabolic/Nutritional Hyperlipemia 0.08% 5.51%
Acidosis 0.04% 1.57%
Creatinine Increased 0% 2.36%
BUN Increased 0% 1.57%
Hyperglycemia 0% 1.57%
Hypernaturemia 0% 1.57%
Hypokalemia 0% 1.57%
Respiratory Dyspnea 0.43% 1.57%
Hypoxia 0.08% 6.30%
Acidosis 0% 1.57%
Pneumothorax 0% 1.57%
Other Injection Site:

 Pain

8.11% 0%

 Burning/stinging

7.77% 0%
Fever 1.89% 2.36%
Hiccough 1.78% 0%
Cough 1.55% 0%
Rash 1.20% 1.57%
Anemia 0.35% 1.57%
Kidney Failure 0% 1.57%

Less Common Clinical Trial Adverse Drug Reactions (≤ 1.0%) Reported During Anaesthesia and Sedation for Surgical/Diagnostic Procedures

Cardiovascular System
Significant hypotension, premature atrial contractions, premature ventricular contractions, tachycardia, syncope, abnormal ECG, bigeminy, edema.

Respiratory System
Burning in throat, tachypnea, dyspnea, upper airway obstruction, wheezing, bronchospasm, laryngospasm, hypoventilation, hyperventilation, sneezing.

Excitatory
Hypertonia, dystonia, rigidity, tremor.

Central Nervous System
Confusion, dizziness, paresthesia, somnolence, shivering, abnormal dreams, agitation, delirium, euphoria, fatigue.

Injection Site
Phlebitis, thrombosis, hives/itching, redness/discolouration.

Digestive System
Hypersalivation, dry mouth.

Skin and Appendages
Flushing/rash (for incidence in children, see above), urticaria, pruritus.

Special Senses
Diplopia, amblyopia, tinnitus.

Musculoskeletal
Myalgia.

Urogenital
Urine retention, discolouration of urine.

Less Common Adverse Drug Reactions (≤ 1%) Reported During ICU Sedation.

Cardiovascular
Arrhythmia, extrasystole, heart block, right heart failure, bigeminy, ventricular fibrillation, heart failure, myocardial infarction.

Respiratory
Lung function decreased, respiratory arrest.

Central Nervous System
Seizure, thinking abnormal, akathisia, chills, anxiety, confusion, hallucinations.

Digestive
Ileus, hepatomegaly.

Metabolic/Nutritional
Osmolality increased.

Urogenital
Green urine, urination disorder, oliguria.

Body as a Whole
Sepsis, trunk pain, whole body weakness.

Post-Market Adverse Drug Reactions

Clinical Trial Adverse Drug Reactions

A randomised, controlled, clinical trial that evaluated the safety and effectiveness of propofol injectable emulsion versus standard sedative agents (SSA) in pediatric ICU patients has been conducted. In that study, a total of 327 pediatric patients were randomised to receive either propofol injectable emulsion 2% (113 patients), propofol injectable emulsion 1% (109 patients), or an SSA (e.g., lorazepam, chloral hydrate, fentanyl, ketamine, morphine, or phenobarbital).

Propofol injectable emulsion therapy was initiated at an infusion rate of 5.5 mg/kg/hr and titrated as needed to maintain sedation at a standardized level. The results of the study showed an increase in the number of deaths in patients treated with propofol injectable emulsion as compared to SSAs. A total of 25 patients died during the trial or within the 28-day follow-up period: 12 (11%) in the propofol injectable emulsion 2% treatment group, 9 (8%) in the propofol injectable emulsion 1% treatment group, and 4 (4%) in the SSA treatment group.

Spontaneous Reports and Publications

Propofol Infusion Syndrome (PRIS)

There are several publications identifying an association in adults between high infusion rates (greater than 5 mg/kg/h) of propofol for more than 48 hours in ICUs and a potentially fatal constellation of adverse events characterized by metabolic acidosis, rhabdomyolysis, hyperkalaemia, and cardiovascular collapse (see Warnings and Precautions).

The majority of the above-reported cases occurred in adults with head injury. These patients were treated with propofol at infusion rates greater than 5 mg/kg/h in an attempt to control intracranial hypertension. It is unclear at this time whether propofol at these high infusion rates can provide enhanced intracranial pressure reduction. A causal relationship between these adverse events and propofol and/or the lipid carrier cannot yet be established.

Similar findings were first reported in the literature in 1992 in children who received high doses of propofol in the ICU. Since the 1992 publication, several similar reports have been published, including an article that summarized 18 cases of children who received propofol infusions and suffered serious adverse events, including death.

Drug Abuse and Dependence

Rare cases of self administration of propofol injectable emulsion by health care professionals have been reported, including some fatalities.

Drug Interactions

Overview

Propofol injectable emulsion has been used in association with spinal and epidural anaesthesia and with a range of premedicants, muscle relaxants, inhalational agents, analgesic agents and with local anaesthetic agents; no significant adverse interactions have been observed.

The concurrent administration of other central nervous system depressants such as alcohol, pre-medication drugs, inhalation agents, anaesthetic and analgesic agents may add to the sedative, anaesthetic and cardiorespiratory depressant effects of propofol injectable emulsion. During induction of anaesthesia, hypotension and transient apnoea may occur depending on the dose and use of premedicants and other agents.

Propofol injectable emulsion clearance is blood flow dependent, therefore, concomitant medication that reduces cardiac output will also reduce propofol injectable emulsion clearance.

In pediatric patients, administration of fentanyl concomitantly with Propofol Injection may result in serious bradycardia.

Drug-Food Interactions

Interactions of propofol injectable emulsion with food have not been established.

Drug-Herb Interactions

Interactions of propofol injectable emulsion with herbal products have not been established.

Drug-Laboratory Interactions

Interactions of propofol injectable emulsion with laboratory tests have not been established.

Drug-Lifestyle Interactions

Interactions of propofol injectable emulsion with lifestyle have not been established.

Dosage and Administration

Dosing Considerations

General

Strict aseptic techniques must always be maintained during handling as Propofol Injection is a single-use parenteral product, for use in an individual patient, and contains no antimicrobial preservatives. The vehicle is capable of supporting rapid growth of microorganisms. Failure to follow aseptic handling procedures may result in microbial contamination causing fever/infection/sepsis which could lead to life-threatening illness.

Propofol Injection should be visually inspected for particulate matter, emulsion separation and/or discolouration prior to use. Do not use if any of these things are seen. If no signs of particulate matter, emulsion separation and/or discolouration are seen, shake gently before use.

Dosage and rate of administration should be individualized and titrated to the desired effect according to clinically relevant factors including preinduction and concomitant medications, age, ASA status and level of debilitation of the patient. In heavily premedicated patients, both the induction and maintenance doses should be reduced.

Recommended Dose and Dosage Adjustment

Induction of General Anaesthesia

As with most anaesthetic agents, the effects of Propofol Injection may be potentiated in patients who have received intravenous sedative or narcotic premedications shortly prior to induction.

Adults (< 55 years of age)

Most adult patients under 55 years of age and classified ASA I and II are likely to require 2.0 to 2.5 mg/kg of Propofol Injection for induction when unpremedicated or when premedicated with oral benzodiazepines or intramuscular narcotics. For induction, it is recommended that Propofol Injection should be titrated (approximately 40 mg every 10 seconds by bolus injection or infusion) against the response of the patient until the clinical signs show the onset of general anaesthesia.

Geriatric, Debilitated and Adults ASA Classes III and IV

It is important to be familiar and experienced with the appropriate intravenous use of Propofol Injection before treating elderly, debilitated and/or adult patients in ASA Physical Status Classes III and IV. These patients may be more sensitive to the effects of Propofol Injection; therefore, the dosage of Propofol Injection should be reduced in these patients by approximately 50% (20 mg every 10 seconds) according to their condition and clinical response. A rapid bolus should not be used as this will increase the likelihood of undesirable cardiorespiratory depression including hypotension, apnea, airway obstruction and/or oxygen desaturation (see Warnings and Precautions and Dosage and Administration, Induction of Generalanaesthesia - Dosage Guide for Induction of General Anaesthesia).

During cardiac anaesthesia, a rapid bolus induction should be avoided. A slow rate of approximately 20 mg every 10 seconds until induction onset (0.5 to 1.5 mg/kg) should be used.

Pediatrics (3 - 18 years of age)

Most children over 8 years of age require approximately 2.5 mg/kg of Propofol Injection for induction of anaesthesia. Children 3 to 8 years of age may require somewhat higher doses, however the dose should be titrated by administering Propofol Injection slowly until the clinical signs show the onset of anaesthesia. Reduced dosage is recommended for children of ASA Classes III and IV.

Pediatrics < 3 years of age

Propofol Injection is not recommended for induction of anaesthesia in children less than 3 years of age.

Dosage Guide for Induction of General Anaesthesia
Dosage should be individualized
Adult Patients < 55 Years of Age Are likely to require 2.0 to 2.5 mg/kg (approximately 40 mg every 10 seconds until induction onset).
Elderly, Debilitated and/or Adult ASA III or IV Patients Are likely to require 1.0 to 1.5 mg/kg (approximately 20 mg every 10 seconds until induction onset) but dose should be carefully titrated to effect.
Cardiac Anaesthesia Patients are likely to require 0.5 to 1.5 mg/kg (approximately 20 mg every 10 seconds until induction onset).
Neurosurgical Patients Are likely to require 1.0 to 2.0 mg/kg (approximately 20 mg every 10 seconds until induction onset).
Pediatric Patients 3 - 8 and 8 - 18 Years of Age Children over 8 years of age require approximately 2.5 mg/kg. Children 3 to 8 years of age may require somewhat higher doses but doses should be titrated slowly to the desired effect. Reduced dosage is recommended for children of ASA Classes III and IV.
Pediatric Patients < 3 Years of Age In the absence of sufficient clinical experience, Propofol Injection is not recommended for induction of anaesthesia in children less than 3 years of age (see Indications and Clinical Use and Warnings and Precautions).

Maintenance of General Anaesthesia

Anaesthesia can be maintained by administering Propofol Injection by infusion or intermittent i.v. bolus injection. The patient’s clinical response will determine the infusion rate or the amount and frequency of incremental injections.

When administering Propofol Injection by infusion, drop counters, syringe pumps or volumetric pumps must be used to provide controlled infusion rates.

Continuous Infusion

Propofol Injection 0.10 to 0.20 mg/kg/min (6 - 12 mg/kg/h) administered in a variable rate infusion with 60% - 70% nitrous oxide and oxygen provides anaesthesia for patients undergoing general surgery. Maintenance by infusion of Propofol Injection should immediately follow the induction dose in order to provide satisfactory or continuous anaesthesia during the induction Propofol Injection –Non-Annotated Product Monograph Page 18 of 44 phase. During this initial period following the induction injection higher rates of infusion are generally required (0.15 - 0.20 mg/kg/min; 9 - 12 mg/kg/h) for the first 10 to 15 minutes. Infusion rates should subsequently be decreased by 30% - 50% during the first half-hour of maintenance. Changes in vital signs (increases in pulse rate, blood pressure, sweating and/or tearing) that indicate a response to surgical stimulation or lightening of anaesthesia may be controlled by the administration of Propofol Injection 25 mg (2.5 mL) to 50 mg (5.0 mL) incremental boluses and/or by increasing the infusion rate. If vital sign changes are not controlled after a five minute period, other means such as a narcotic, barbiturate, vasodilator or inhalation agent therapy should be initiated to control these responses.

For minor surgical procedures (i.e., body surface) 60% to 70% nitrous oxide can be combined with a variable rate Propofol Injection infusion to provide satisfactory anaesthesia. With more stimulating surgical procedures (i.e., intra-abdominal) supplementation with i.v. analgesic agents should be considered to provide a satisfactory anaesthetic and recovery profile. When supplementation with nitrous oxide is not provided, administration rate(s) of Propofol Injection and/or opioids should be increased in order to provide adequate anaesthesia.

Infusion rates should always be titrated downward in the absence of clinical signs of light anaesthesia until a mild response to surgical stimulation is obtained in order to avoid administration of Propofol Injection at rates higher than are clinically necessary. Generally, rates of 0.05 to 0.10 mg/kg/min should be achieved during maintenance in order to optimize recovery times.

During cardiac anaesthesia, when Propofol Injection is used as the primary agent, maintenance infusion rates should not be less than 0.10 mg/kg/min and should be supplemented with analgesic levels of continuous opioid administration. When an opioid is used as the primary agent, Propofol Injection maintenance rates should not be less than 0.05 mg/kg/min. Higher doses of Propofol Injection will reduce the opioid requirements.

For children, the average rate of administration varies considerably but rates between 0.10 to 0.25 mg/kg/min (6 - 15 mg/kg/h) should achieve satisfactory anaesthesia. These infusion rates may be subsequently reduced depending on patient response and concurrent medication.

Intermittent Bolus

Increments of Propofol Injection 25 mg (2.5 mL) to 50 mg (5.0 mL) may be administered with nitrous oxide in patients undergoing general surgery. The incremental boluses should be administered when changes in vital signs indicate a response to surgical stimulation or light anaesthesia.

Propofol Injection has been used in conjunction with a wide variety of agents commonly used in anaesthesia such as atropine, scopolamine, glycopyrrolate, diazepam, depolarizing and nondepolarizing muscle relaxants, and narcotic analgesics, as well as with inhalational and regional anaesthetic agents. No pharmacological incompatibilities have been encountered.

Lower doses of Propofol Injection may be required when used as an adjunct to regional anaesthesia.

Dosage Guide for Maintenance of General Anaesthesia
Infusion: Variable rate infusion titrated to the desired clinical effect.
Adult Patients < 55 Years of Age Generally, 0.10 to 0.20 mg/kg/min (6 to 12 mg/kg/h)
Elderly, Debilitated and/or Adult ASA III or IV Patients Generally, 0.05 to 0.10 mg/kg/min (3 to 6 mg/kg/h)
Cardiac Anaesthesia Most patients require:
  • Primary Propofol Injection with Secondary Opioid – 0.10 to 0.15 mg/kg/min (6 to 9 mg/kg/h)
  • Low Dose Propofol Injection with Primary Opioid – 0.05 to 0.10 mg/kg/min (3 to 6 mg/kg/h)
Neurosurgical Patients Generally, 0.10 to 0.20 mg/kg/min (6 to 12 mg/kg/h)
Pediatric Patients 3 - 18 Years of Age Generally, 0.10 to 0.25 mg/kg/min (6 to 15 mg/kg/h)

Intermittent Bolus: Increments of 25 mg to 50 mg, as needed.

Surgical/Diagnostic Sedation

Adults

When Propofol Injection is administered for sedation, rates of administration should be individualized and titrated to clinical response. In most patients, the rates of Propofol Injection administration will be approximately 25 to 30% of those used for maintenance of general anaesthesia.

During initiation of sedation, slow injection or slow infusion techniques are preferable over rapid bolus administration. During maintenance of sedation, a variable rate infusion is preferable over intermittent bolus dose administration.

Initiation of Sedation

Slow injection: most adult patients will generally require 0.5 to 1.0 mg/kg administered over 3 to 5 minutes and titrated to clinical response.

In the elderly, debilitated, hypovolemic and ASA III or IV patients, the dosage of Propofol Injection should be reduced to approximately 70% to 80% of the adult dosage and administered over 3 to 5 minutes.

Infusion: sedation may be initiated by infusing Propofol Injection at 0.066 to 0.100 mg/kg/min (4.0 - 6.0 mg/kg/h) and titrating to the desired level of sedation while closely monitoring respiratory function.

Maintenance of Sedation

Patients will generally require maintenance rates of 0.025 to 0.075 mg/kg/min (1.5 - 4.5 mg/kg/h) during the first 10 to 15 minutes of sedation maintenance.

Infusion rates should always be titrated downward in the absence of clinical signs of light sedation until mild responses to stimulation are obtained in order to avoid sedative administration of Propofol Injection at rates higher than are clinically necessary.

In addition to the infusion, bolus administration of 10 to 15 mg may be necessary if a rapid increase in sedation depth is required.

In the elderly, debilitated, hypovolemic and ASA III or IV patients, the rate of administration and the dosage of Propofol Injection should be reduced to approximately 70% to 80% of the adult dosage according to their condition, responses, and changes in vital signs. Rapid (single or repeated) bolus dose administration should not be used for sedation in these patients (see Warnings and Precautions).

Dosage Guide for Surgical/Diagnostic Sedation
Dosage and rate should be individualized and titrated to the desired clinical effect.
Adult Patients < 55 Years of Age Are likely to require 0.5 to 1.0 mg/kg over 3 to 5 min to initiate sedation, followed by 0.025 to 0.075 mg/kg/min (1.5 - 4.5 mg/kg/h) for continued sedation.
Elderly, Debilitated, Hypovolemic and/or ASA III or IV patients The dosage and rate of administration may need to be reduced in these patients by approximately 20 to 30% (see previous section for details).
Pediatric Patients < 18 Years of Age Propofol Injection is not recommended for sedation during surgical/diagnostic procedures in children under the age of 18, as safety and efficacy have not been established (see Indications and Clinical Use).

Initiation and Maintenance of Icu Sedation in Intubated, Mechanically Ventilated Adult Patients

Propofol Injection should be individualized according to the patient’s condition and response, blood lipid profile, and vital signs.

Adults

For intubated, mechanically ventilated, adult patients, Intensive Care Unit (ICU) sedation should be initiated slowly with a continuous infusion in order to titrate to desired clinical effect and minimize hypotension. When indicated, initiation of sedation should begin at 0.005 mg/kg/min (0.3 mg/kg/h). The infusion rate should be increased by increments of 0.005 to 0.010 mg/kg/min (0.3 - 0.6 mg/kg/h) until the desired level of sedation is achieved. A minimum period of 5 minutes between adjustments should be allowed for onset of peak drug effect.

Most adult patients require maintenance rates of 0.005 to 0.050 mg/kg/min (0.3 - 3.0 mg/kg/h). Administration of Propofol Injection for ICU sedation in adult patients should not exceed 4 mg/kg/hour. Dosages of Propofol Injection should be reduced in patients who have received large dosages of narcotics. As with other sedative medications, there is interpatient variability in dosage requirements and these requirements may change with time. (See Dosage and Administration, Initiation and Maintenance of ICU Sedation in Intubated, Mechanically Ventilated Adult Patients-Dosage Guide).

Bolus administration of 10 to 20 mg should only be used to rapidly increase sedation depth in patients where hypotension is not likely to occur. A rapid bolus should not be used, as this will increase the likelihood of hypotension. Patients with compromised myocardial function, intravascular volume depletion or abnormally low vascular tone (e.g., sepsis) may be more susceptible to hypotension.

Children Under 18 Years of Age

Propofol is contraindicated for the sedation of children 18 years or younger receiving intensive care.

Dosage Guide for Initiation and Maintenance of ICU Sedation in Intubated, Mechanically Ventilated Adult Patients
Dosage and rate of infusion should be individualized.
Adult Patients
  • For initiation, most patients require an infusion of 0.005 mg/kg/min (0.3 mg/kg/h) for at least 5 minutes. Subsequent increments of 0.005 to 0.010 mg/kg/min (0.3 - 0.6 mg/kg/h) over 5 to 10 minutes may be used until desired level of sedation is achieved. Administration of Propofol Injection for ICU sedation in adult patients should not exceed 4 mg/kg/hour.
  • For maintenance, most patients require 0.005 to 0.050 mg/kg/min (0.3 - 3.0 mg/kg/h).
  • The long-term administration of Propofol Injection to patients with renal failure and/or hepatic insufficiency has not been evaluated.

Handling and Administration

Handling Procedures

Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discolouration prior to administration whenever solution and container permit. Do not freeze.

Propofol Injection should be visually inspected for particulate matter, emulsion separation and/or discolouration prior to use. Do not use if any of these changes are seen. If no signs of particulate matter, emulsion separation and/or discolouration are seen, shake gently before use.

Aseptic techniques must be applied to the handling of the drug. Propofol Injection contains no antimicrobial preservatives and the vehicle supports growth of microorganisms. When Propofol Injection is to be aspirated, it should be drawn aseptically into a sterile syringe or intravenous administration set immediately after breaking the vial seal. Administration should commence without delay. Asepsis must be maintained for both Propofol Injection and the infusion equipment throughout the infusion period. Any drugs or fluids added to the infusion line must be administered close to the cannula site. Propofol Injection must not be administered via a microbiological filter.

Propofol Injection is for single use in an individual patient only. If a vial is utilized for infusion, both the reservoir of Propofol Injection and the infusion line must be discarded and replaced as appropriate at the end of the procedure or at 12 hours, whichever is sooner. (When using DILUTED Propofol Injection, see Dosage and Administration, Dilution Prior Administration.)

Administration into a Running I.V. Catheter

Compatibility of Propofol Injection with the co-administration of blood/serum/plasma has not been established (see Warnings and Precautions, General). Propofol Injection has been shown to be compatible with the following intravenous fluids when administered into a running i.v. catheter:

  • 5% Dextrose Injection, USP
  • Lactated Ringers Injection, USP
  • Lactated Ringers and 5% Dextrose Injection
  • 5% Dextrose and 0.45% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP
  • 5% Dextrose and 0.2% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP

Since Propofol Injection contains no preservative or bacteriostatic agents, any unused portions of Propofol Injection or solutions containing Propofol Injection should be discarded at the end of the surgical procedure.

Dilution Prior to Administration

When Propofol Injection is diluted prior to administration, it should only be diluted with 5% Dextrose Injection, USP, and it should not be diluted to a concentration less than 2 mg/mL because it is an emulsion. Dilutions should be prepared aseptically immediately before administration and should not be used beyond 6 hours of preparation. In diluted form it has been shown to be more stable when in contact with glass than with plastic (95% potency after 2 hours of running infusion in plastic).

Pre-mixing with alfentanil

Propofol Injection may be pre-mixed with alfentanil injection containing 500 μg/ml alfentanil in the ratio of 20:1 to 50:1 v/v. Mixtures should be prepared using sterile technique and used within 6 hours of preparation.

Propofol Injection can be pre-mixed with alfentanil. Propofol Injection should not be mixed with other therapeutic agents prior to administration.

The neuromuscular blocking agents, atracurium and mivacurium should not be given through the same i.v. line as Propofol Injection without prior flushing.

Overdosage

For management of a suspected drug overdose, contact your regional Poison Control Centre immediately.

To date, there is no known case of acute overdosage, and no specific information on emergency treatment of overdosage is available. If accidental overdosage occurs, Propofol Injection administration should be discontinued immediately. Overdosage is likely to cause cardiorespiratory depression. Respiratory depression should be treated by artificial ventilation with oxygen. Cardiovascular depression may require repositioning of the patient by raising the patient's legs, increasing the flow rate of intravenous fluids and if severe may require the administration of plasma volume expanders and/or pressor agents.

Action and Clinical Pharmacology

Mechanism of Action

Propofol is an intravenous hypnotic agent for use in the induction and maintenance of general anaesthesia or sedation.

The drug, an alkylphenol formulated in an oil-in-water emulsion, is chemically distinct from currently available intravenous anaesthetic agents. Intravenous injection of a therapeutic dose of propofol produces hypnosis rapidly and smoothly, usually within 40 seconds from the start of an injection (one arm-brain circulation time), although induction times > 60 seconds have been observed.

Pharmacodynamics

Propofol induces anaesthesia in a dose-dependent manner. In unpremedicated, ASA I or II patients, propofol induced anaesthesia in 87% and 95% of patients at doses of 2.0 and 2.5 mg/kg, respectively. Elderly patients require lower doses; for unpremedicated patients older than 55 years of age, the mean dose requirement was 1.66 mg/kg. Premedication profoundly alters dose requirements; at 1.75 mg/kg, propofol induced anaesthesia in 65% of patients who had no premedication and in 85% and 100% of patients who received diazepam or papaveretum-hyoscine premedication, respectively.

During induction of anaesthesia, the hemodynamic effects of propofol vary. If spontaneous ventilation is maintained, the major cardiovascular effects are arterial hypotension (sometimes greater than a 30% decrease) with little or no change in heart rate and no appreciable decrease in cardiac output. If ventilation is assisted or controlled (positive pressure ventilation), the degree and incidence of decrease in cardiac output are accentuated. Maximal fall in blood pressure occurs within the first few minutes of the administration of a bolus dose. The fall in arterial pressure is greater under propofol anaesthesia than under anaesthesia induced by thiopental or methohexital. Increases in heart rate with propofol are generally less pronounced or absent after an induction dose, than after equivalent doses of these other two agents.

During maintenance of anaesthesia with propofol, systolic and diastolic blood pressures generally remain below pre-anaesthetic levels, although the depth of anaesthesia, the rate of maintenance infusion as well as stimulation from tracheal intubation and/or surgery may increase or decrease blood pressure. Heart rate may also vary as a function of these factors but will generally remain below pre-anaesthetic levels.

In the presence of a potent opioid (e.g., fentanyl), the blood pressure lowering effect of propofol is substantially increased. Fentanyl also decreases heart rate and this mi%ht lead to a significant decrease in cardiac output.

Age is highly correlated with the fall in blood pressure. In elderly subjects, both the incidence and degree of hypotension are greater than in younger subjects. Thus, a lower induction dose and a slower maintenance rate of administration should be used in the elderly (see Dosage and Administration). Particular caution should be exercised in elderly patients with severe coronary and/or cerebral arteriosclerosis; reduction in perfusion pressure may impair adequate blood supply to these organs.

Insufficient data are available regarding the cardiovascular effects of propofol when used for induction and/or maintenance of anaesthesia or sedation in elderly, hypotensive, debilitated or other ASA III and IV patients. However, limited information suggests that these patients may have more profound cardiovascular responses. It is recommended that if propofol is used in these patients, a lower induction dose and a slower maintenance rate of administration of the drug be used (see Warnings and Precautions, General and Dosage and Administration).

The first respiratory disturbance after a bolus dose of propofol is a profound fall in tidal volume leading to apnea in many patients. There has been no accompanying cough or hiccough and otherwise anaesthesia is smooth. However, there might be some difficulty in uptake of volatile agents if respiration is not assisted.

In unpremedicated, healthy patients, there is a steep dose-response relationship regarding apnea; 0% and 44% of patients had apnea after receiving 2.0 and 2.5 mg/kg of propofol, respectively. Fentanyl enhanced both the incidence and the onset of apnea and the episode lasted for > 60 seconds in the majority of patients.

Opioid premedication - in the presence of hyoscine - affected respiratory function (rate of respiration and minute volume) substantially more than atropine premedication. Respiratory function was more depressed when these premedicants were combined with propofol than when they were combined with thiopental. Enhanced respiratory depression with propofol and an opioid have been observed in the postoperative period.

During maintenance, propofol (0.1 to 0.2 mg/kg/min; 6 - 12 mg/kg/h) caused a decrease in ventilation usually associated with an increase in carbon dioxide tension which may be marked depending upon the rate of administration and other concurrent medication (e.g., narcotics, sedatives, etc.). Propofol was not evaluated in patients with any respiratory dysfunction.

During sedation, attention must be given to the cardiorespiratory effects of Propofol Injection. Hypotension, apnea, airway obstruction, and/or oxygen desaturation can occur, especially with a rapid bolus injection. During initiation of sedation, slow infusion or slow injection techniques are preferable over rapid bolus administration, and during maintenance of sedation, a variable rate infusion is preferable over intermittent bolus administration in order to minimize undesirable cardiorespiratory effects. In the elderly, debilitated and ASA III or IV patients, rapid (single or repeated) bolus dose administration should not be used for sedation (see Warnings and Precautions, General).

Clinical and preclinical studies suggest that propofol is rarely associated with elevation of plasma histamine levels and does not cause signs of histamine release.

Clinical and preclinical studies show that propofol does not suppress the adrenal response to ACTH.

Preliminary findings in patients with normal intraocular pressure indicate that propofol anaesthesia produces a decrease in intraocular pressure which may be associated with a concomitant decrease in systemic vascular resistance.

Propofol is devoid of analgesic or antanalgesic activity.

Pharmacokinetics

The pharmacokinetic profile of propofol can be described by a 3-compartment open model. After a single bolus dose, there is fast distribution from blood into tissues (t½α: 1.8 to 8.3 min), high metabolic clearance (t½β: 34 to 66 min) and a terminal slow elimination from poorly perfused tissues (t½γ: 184 to 480 min). With 12 and 24 hour samplings, t½γ values of 502 and 674 min, respectively, were observed.

When given by an infusion for up to two hours, the pharmacokinetics of propofol appear to be independent of dose (0.05 - 0.15 mg/kg/min; 3 - 9 mg/kg/h) and similar to i.v. bolus pharmacokinetics. Pharmacokinetics are linear over recommended infusion rates.

Propofol is highly protein-bound (97 - 99%); the degree of binding seems to be unrelated to either sex or age.

In the presence of propofol injectable emulsion, alfentanil concentrations were higher than expected based upon the rate of infusion. However, alfentanil did not affect the pharmacokinetics of propofol injectable emulsion (see Dosage and Administration, Handling and Administration).

Pharmacokinetics in Adult Patients in Intensive Care Unit (ICU)

Regarding most parameters, the pharmacokinetics of propofol in these patients are similar to those of patients undergoing anaesthesia/sedation for short surgical procedures. However, the terminal half-life (t½γ) is substantially prolonged after long-term infusion, reflecting extensive tissue distribution.

Distribution

Propofol has large volumes of distribution as would be expected with a highly lipophilic anaesthetic agent. The volume of central compartment (Vc) is between 21 and 56 L (0.35 - 0.93 L/kg based on a 60 kg patient), and the volume of distribution at steady state (Vss) is between 171 and 364 L (2.85 - 6.07 L/kg). Values for volume of distribution during the terminal phase (Vd) are two to three times the corresponding Vss values.

Metabolism

The termination of the anaesthetic or sedative effects of propofol after a single i.v. bolus or a maintenance infusion is due to extensive redistribution from the CNS to other tissues and high metabolic clearance, both of which will decrease blood concentrations. The mean propofol concentration at time of awakening is 1 μg/mL (range: 0.74 to 2.2 μg/mL). Recovery from anaesthesia or sedation is rapid. When propofol is used for both induction (2.0 to 2.5 mg/kg) and maintenance (0.1 to 0.2 mg/kg/min) of anaesthesia, the majority of patients are generally awake, responsive to verbal command and oriented in approximately 7 to 8 minutes. Recovery from the effects of propofol occurs due to rapid metabolism and is not dependent on the terminal elimination half-life since the blood levels achieved in this phase are not clinically significant.

Excretion

A study in six subjects showed that 72% and 88% of the administered radio-labelled dose was recovered in the urine within 24 hours and 5 days, respectively. Less than 2% was excreted in the feces. Unchanged drug was less than 0.3%. Propofol is chiefly metabolized by conjugation in the liver to inactive metabolites which are excreted by the kidney. Propofol glucuronide accounts for about 50% of the administered dose. The remainder consists of the 1- and 4-glucuronide and 4-sulphate conjugates of 2,6-diisopropyl-1,4-quinol.

The total body clearance (Cl) of propofol ranges from 1.6 L/min to 2.3 L/min (0.026 - 0.038 L/min/kg based on a 60 kg patient). This clearance exceeds estimates of hepatic blood flow, suggesting possible extrahepatic metabolism.

Special Populations and Conditions

Pediatrics

The results were obtained in ASA I children, ranging in age from 3 to 10 years, who received a single bolus dose of propofol, 2.5 mg/kg. Propofol was rapidly distributed from blood into tissue (t½α: 1.5 - 4.1 min), metabolic clearance was high (t½β: 9.3 - 56.1 min) and terminal elimination slow (t½γ: 209 - 735 min). The volume of central compartment (Vc) ranged between 0.53 - 0.72 L/kg, the volume of distribution at steady state (Vss) was between 2.1 - 10.9 L/kg and clearance (Cl) ranged between 0.032 - 0.040 L/min/kg. The mean plasma concentration of propofol at awakening was 2.3 μg/mL.

Geriatrics

With increasing age, the dose of propofol injectable emulsion needed to achieve a defined anaesthetic endpoint (dose-requirement) decreases. Elderly patients had higher propofol blood concentrations at 2 minutes than young ones (6.07 versus 4.15 μg/mL), probably due to a significantly lower initial distribution volume (20 versus 26 L). The relatively high blood concentrations during the first few minutes can predispose elderly patients to cardiorespiratory effects including hypotension, apnea, airway obstruction and/or oxygen desaturation. The clearance of propofol injectable emulsion also decreased from a mean ± S.D. of 1.8 ± 0.4 L/min in young patients (18 - 35 years) to 1.4 ± 0.4 L/min in elderly patients (65 – 80 years). The reduced clearance could decrease maintenance propofol requirements and prolong recovery if inappropriate infusions are used. Obesity is associated with significantly larger volumes of distribution (399 L versus 153 L) and clearance rates (2.8 L/min versus 1.8 L/min) but there is no change in the elimination half-life.

Gender

The pharmacokinetics of propofol injectable emulsion do not appear to be altered by gender.

Hepatic Insufficiency

The pharmacokinetics of propofol injectable emulsion do not appear to be altered by chronic hepatic cirrhosis. The effects of acute hepatic failure on the harmacokinetics of propofol injectable emulsion have not been studied.

Renal Insufficiency

In renal failure, the data is based on very limited findings. There was a trend towards longer half-lives, although the differences versus control patients did not reach statistical significance.

Storage and Stability

Store between 15 °C and 25 °C; do not freeze. The emulsion should be visually inspected for particulate matter, emulsion separation and/or discolouration prior to use. Do not use if any of these things are seen. If no signs of particulate matter, emulsion separation and/or discolouration are seen, shake gently before use. Any unused portions of Propofol Injection or solutions containing propofol should be discarded at the end of the surgical procedure.

Dosage Forms, Composition and Packaging

Composition

Propofol Injection is a white, oil in water emulsion. Each mL contains 10 mg of propofol for i.v. administration. In addition to the active component, propofol, the formulation also contains soybean oil (50 mg/mL), medium-chain triglycerides (50 mg/mL), glycerol (22.5 mg/mL), purified egg phospholipids (12 mg/mL), oleic acid (0.4 mg/mL for pH adjustment and as co-emulsion), nitrogen and water for injection with sodium hydroxide to adjust pH. It is isotonic with a pH of 6.0 - 8.5.

Dosage Forms and Packaging

Propofol Injection is available as propofol 1% w/v in 20 mL glass vial, 50 mL and 100 mL glass bottles for single use infusion only. Each vial and bottle contains 10 mg/mL of propofol.