Fycompa: Indications, Dosage, Precautions, Adverse Effects
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Fycompa - Product Information

Manufacture: Eisai Inc.
Country: Canada
Condition: Epilepsy, Seizures (Convulsions)
Class: AMPA receptor antagonists, Anticonvulsants
Form: Tablets
Ingredients: perampanel, lactose monohydrate, giproloza low substituted, povidone, magnesium stearate, MCC

Perampanel Tablets

Summary Product Information

Route of
Administration
Dosage Form /
Strength
Non-medicinal Ingredients
Oral Tablets /
2 mg, 4 mg, 6 mg, 8 mg, 10 mg and 12 mg
hypromellose, lactose monohydrate, lowsubstituted hydroxypropyl cellulose, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, polyethylene glycol, povidone, talc and titanium dioxide and dye pigments:
2 mg tablets: yellow ferric oxide, red ferric oxide
4 mg tablets: red ferric oxide
6 mg tablets: red ferric oxide
8 mg tablets: black ferric oxide, red ferric oxide
10 mg tablets: FD&C Blue #2 indigo carmine aluminum lake, yellow ferric oxide
12 mg tablets: FD&C Blue #2 indigo carmine aluminum lake

Indications and Clinical Use

FYCOMPA (perampanel) is indicated as adjunctive therapy in the management of partial-onset and primary generalized tonic-clonic (PGTC) seizures, in adult patients with epilepsy who are not satisfactorily controlled with conventional therapy

Geriatrics (> 65 years of age)

There is limited information on the use of FYCOMPA in subjects over 65 years of age.

Pediatrics (< 18 years of age)

The safety and efficacy of FYCOMPA in pediatric patients have not been established and its use in this patient population is not indicated.

Contraindications

Patients who are hypersensitive to FYCOMPA or to any ingredient in the formulation or component of the container. For a complete listing, see the DOSAGE FORMS,COMPOSITION AND PACKAGING section.

Warnings and Precautions

WARNING: Serious Psychiatric and Behavioural Reactions, Including Aggression- and Hostility-Related

  • Serious or life-threatening psychiatric and behavioural adverse reactions including aggression, hostility, irritability, anger, and homicidal ideation and threats have been reported in patients taking FYCOMPA.
  • These reactions occurred in patients with and without prior psychiatric history, prior aggressive behaviour, or concomitant use of medications associated with hostility and aggression.
  • Advise patients and caregivers to contact a healthcare provider immediately if any of these reactions or changes in mood, behaviour, or personality that are not typical for the patient are observed while taking FYCOMPA or after discontinuing FYCOMPA.
  • Patients taking FYCOMPA should be advised to avoid the use of alcohol, as it may exacerbate these effects.
  • Closely monitor patients particularly during the titration period and at higher doses.
  • FYCOMPA should be reduced if these symptoms occur and should be discontinued immediately if symptoms are severe or are worsening.

Clinical Trial Data

In general, in placebo-controlled Phase 3 epilepsy trials, neuropsychiatric events were reported more frequently in patients taking FYCOMPA than in patients taking placebo. This is true in both the presence and absence of concomitant enzyme-inducing AEDs (EI-AEDs), but not unexpectedly, the rates are lower in the presence of EI-AEDs, apparently reflecting the lower mean FYCOMPA blood levels (see ADVERSE REACTIONS, Tables 1 and 2).

Regarding specifically the aggression- and hostility-related events: In the absence of enzyme-inducing AEDS, the rate of aggression- and hostility-related events at FYCOMPA doses FYCOMPA (perampanel) Product Monograph Page 5 of 42 of 8 to 12 mg/day was 21% for FYCOMPA vs 8% for placebo. In the presence of enzymeinducing AEDs, the rates were 10% and 4% respectively (see ADVERSE REACTIONS, Table 3). These events included irritability, belligerence, affect lability, agitation, mood swings, frustration, anger and physical assault. FYCOMPA-treated patients experienced more hostilityand aggression-related adverse reactions that were serious, severe, or life-threatening and led to dose reduction, interruption, and discontinuation more frequently than placebo-treated patients. These effects were dose-related and generally appeared within the first 6 weeks of treatment, although new events continued to be observed through more than 37 weeks. Six patients out of 4,368 perampanel-treated patients exhibited homicidal ideation or threat in controlled and openlabel studies, including non-epilepsy studies.

In the Phase 3 epilepsy trials these events occurred in patients with and without prior psychiatric history, prior aggressive behaviour, or concomitant use of medications associated with hostility and aggression. Some patients experienced worsening of their pre-existing psychiatric conditions.

Patients with documented active psychotic disorders and unstable recurrent affective disorders were excluded from the clinical trials. The combination of alcohol and FYCOMPA significantly worsened mood and increased anger (see DRUG INTERACTIONS, Alcohol and Other CNS Depressants). Patients taking FYCOMPA should avoid the use of alcohol.

In healthy volunteers taking FYCOMPA, observed psychiatric events included paranoia, euphoric mood, agitation, anger, mental status changes, and disorientation/confusional state. In the non-epilepsy trials, psychiatric events that occurred in FYCOMPA-treated subjects more often than placebo-treated subjects included disorientation, delusion, and paranoia.

Recommendations to the Prescriber

Patients, their caregivers, and families should be informed that FYCOMPA may increase the risk of psychiatric events. They should be informed to avoid alcohol. Patients should be monitored during treatment and for at least one month after the last dose of FYCOMPA, and especially when taking higher doses and during the initial few weeks of drug therapy (titration period) or at other times of dose increases. Dose of FYCOMPA should be reduced if these symptoms occur. Permanently discontinue FYCOMPA for persistent severe or worsening psychiatric symptoms or behaviours and refer for psychiatric evaluation (See also: Patient Counselling Information, in WARNING AND PRECAUTIONS).

Substantial Decrease in Mean FYCOMPA Blood Levels for Patients on Concomitant CYP3A Enzyme-Inducing AEDs (Carbamazepine, Oxcarbazepine, Phenytoin)

Carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, and phenytoin (all strong cytochrome P450 inducers) decrease FYCOMPA plasma concentrations and efficacy to a clinically significant extent, as compared to patients not on these AEDs (see DRUG INTERACTIONS; CLINICAL TRIALS). The rate of occurrence of adverse events in clinical trials was often greater in the absence of concomitant enzyme-inducing AEDs (EI-AEDs), apparently reflecting higher mean FYCOMPA blood levels in that condition of use.

Inadequate Data on Maximal Effective Dosing for Patients on Concomitant CYP3A Enzyme-Inducing AEDs (Carbamazepine, Oxcarbazepine, Phenytoin)

The reduction in FYCOMPA exposure per given FYCOMPA dose, for patients on concomitant EI-AEDs, may result in consideration by the prescriber of higher FYCOMPA doses for these patients in order to compensate. It is important for the prescriber to be aware that the efficacy and safety outcomes of FYCOMPA doses above 12 mg/day are currently unknown because they have not been studied. The unknowns with respect to FYCOMPA doses >12 mg/day are magnified due to remaining uncertainties with FYCOMPA metabolism, including the potential for FYCOMPA to impact on the PK of other AEDs, and the potential for increased production of reactive metabolites with increasing doses of FYCOMPA.

This means that i) doses above 12 mg/day cannot be recommended for any patients; and ii) there is inadequate information about the maximum effective dose range specifically in the population of patients taking enzyme-inducing AEDs (see DOSING AND ADMININSTRATION, Interactions between FYCOMPA and other anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs)).

Drug Interactions: Strong CYP3A Inducers other than AEDs

Strong CYP3A Inducers Other than AEDs (e.g., rifampin, St. John’s wort, some antiretrovirals) should be avoided, due to their potential to significantly decrease FYCOMPA blood levels.

Drug Interactions: Insufficient Characterization of FYCOMPA Metabolism

FYCOMPA is extensively metabolized via primary oxidation and sequential glucuronidation. Primary oxidative metabolism is mediated by CYP3A, however, the metabolism of FYCOMPA has not been completely elucidated and other pathways cannot be excluded. This incomplete understanding adds uncertainty around the safety profile of FYCOMPA.

Suicidal Ideation and Behaviour

Suicidal ideation and behaviour have been reported in patients treated with antiepileptic agents in several indications.

All patients treated with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), irrespective of indication, should be monitored for signs of suicidal ideation and behaviour and appropriate treatment should be considered. Patients (and caregivers of patients) should be advised to seek medical advice should signs of suicidal ideation or behaviour emerge.

An FDA meta-analysis of randomized placebo controlled trials, in which AEDs were used for various indications, has shown a small increased risk of suicidal ideation and behaviour in patients treated with these drugs. The mechanism of this risk is not known.

There were 43,892 patients treated in the placebo controlled clinical trials that were included in the meta-analysis. Approximately 75% of patients in these clinical trials were treated for indications other than epilepsy and, for the majority of non-epilepsy indications the treatment (AED or placebo) was administered as monotherapy. Patients with epilepsy represented approximately 25% of the total number of patients treated in the placebo controlled clinical trials and, for the majority of epilepsy patients, treatment (AED or placebo) was administered as adjunct to other antiepileptic agents (i.e., patients in both treatment arms were being treated with one or more AED). Therefore, the small increased risk of suicidal ideation and behaviour reported from the meta-analysis (0.43% for patients on AEDs compared to 0.24% for patients on placebo) is based largely on patients that received monotherapy treatment (AED or placebo) for non-epilepsy indications. The study design does not allow an estimation of the risk of suicidal ideation and behaviour for patients with epilepsy that are taking AEDs, due both to this population being the minority in the study, and the drug-placebo comparison in this population being confounded by the presence of adjunct AED treatment in both arms.

Abuse Potential

Caution should be exercised in patients with a history of substance abuse and the patient should be monitored for symptoms of perampanel abuse (see ADVERSE REACTIONS, Drug Abuse and Dependence/Liability).

Endocrine and Metabolism

FYCOMPA contains lactose, therefore patients with rare hereditary problems of galactose intolerance, the Lapp lactase deficiency or glucose-galactose malabsorption should not take this medicine.

Neurologic

Withdrawal of Antiepileptic Drugs (AEDs)

Although perampanel has a long half-life, it may be advisable, as with all AEDs, to gradually withdraw FYCOMPA to minimise the potential of increased seizure frequency. However, due to its long-half life and subsequent slow decline in plasma concentrations, FYCOMPA can be discontinued abruptly if absolutely needed (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, Recommended Dose and Dosage Adjustment).

Hostility- and Aggression-related Events, see: WARNING AND PRECAUTIONS, WARNING: Serious Psychiatric and Behavioural Reactions, Including Aggression- and Hostility- Related

Dizziness, Disturbance in Gait and Coordination and Falls

FYCOMPA caused dose-related increases in events related to dizziness, disturbance in gait or coordination, and falls. In the absence of enzyme-inducing AEDs, the rate of coordinationrelated events at FYCOMPA doses of 8 to 12 mg/day was 54% for FYCOMPA vs 15% for placebo. In the presence of enzyme-inducing AEDs, the rates were 47% and 13% respectively (see ADVERSE REACTIONS, Table 3).

These adverse reactions occurred mostly during the titration phase and led to discontinuation more frequently in FYCOMPA-treated patients than in placebo-treated. Elderly patients had an increased risk of these adverse reactions compared to younger adults and adolescents. An increased risk of falls, in some cases leading to serious injuries including head injuries and bone fracture, occurred in patients being treated with FYCOMPA (with and without concurrent seizures).

Somnolence- and Fatigue- Related Events

FYCOMPA caused dose-dependent increases in somnolence and fatigue-related events (including fatigue, asthenia, and lethargy). In the absence of enzyme-inducing AEDs, the rate of somnolence/fatigue-related events at FYCOMPA doses of 8 to 12 mg/day was 39% for FYCOMPA vs 11% for placebo. In the presence of enzyme-inducing AEDs, the rates were 24% and 13% respectively (see ADVERSE REACTIONS, Table 3).

These adverse reactions occurred mostly during the titration phase and led to discontinuation more frequently in FYCOMPA-treated patients than placebo-treated patients. Elderly patients had an increased risk of these adverse reactions compared to younger adults and adolescents.

Caution with Driving and Use of Machinery

FYCOMPA may cause dizziness and somnolence and therefore may influence the ability to drive or use machines. Patients are advised not to drive a vehicle, operate complex machinery or engage in other potentially hazardous activities requiring mental alertness, until the effect of FYCOMPA is known.

Pre-Clinical Findings of Excessive Scratching/Grooming

Excessive scratching/grooming was observed (or inferred from excoriations and other groomingrelated injuries) in adult rats and mice, as well as in juvenile rats and dogs. The clinical significance of this is unknown.

Ophthalmologic

In controlled Phase 3 clinical trials, FYCOMPA treatment was associated with vision-related adverse events primarily in the population of patients taking enzyme-inducing AEDs, with an apparent dose-relatedness (see ADVERSE EVENTS, Tables 1 and 2). In this patient population, diplopia was reported at a rate of 5% in the FYCOMPA 12 mg/day arm, compared to 2% at lower doses, and 1% in the placebo arm. Blurred vision was reported at a rate of 5% in the 12 mg/day arm, compared to 4% and 0 in the 8 and 4 mg/day arms respectively, and 2% in placebo. Out of all patients randomized to FYCOMPA, 4 patients (0.4%) discontinued treatment due to vision-related adverse events (each for diplopia).

Special Populations

Women of Childbearing Potential and Hormonal Contraceptives

Use of FYCOMPA with oral contraceptives containing levonorgestrel has been shown to decrease mean levonorgestrel exposure by approximately 40%. Therefore, use with FYCOMPA with oral or implant contraceptives may render them less effective and an additional reliable nonhormonal method (intra-uterine device (IUD), condom) is to be used (see DRUGINTERACTIONS, Oral Contraceptives).

Pregnant Women

There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women.

In animal studies, perampanel induced developmental toxicity in pregnant rat and rabbit at clinically relevant exposures.

Since the potential risk for humans is unknown, FYCOMPA should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. If women decide to become pregnant while taking FYCOMPA, the use of this product should be carefully re-evaluated.

Labour and Delivery

The effect of FYCOMPA on labour and delivery in pregnant women are not known.

Pregnancy Registry

To provide information regarding the effects of in utero exposure to FYCOMPA, physicians are advised to recommend that pregnant patients taking FYCOMPA enroll in the North American Antiepileptic Drug (NAAED) Pregnancy Registry. This can be done by calling the toll free number 1-888-233-2334, and must be done by patients themselves. Information on the registry can also be found at the website http://www.aedpregnancyregistry.org/.

Nursing Women

Studies in lactating rats have shown that perampanel and/or its metabolites are excreted in milk. It is not known whether FYCOMPA is excreted in human milk. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from FYCOMPA, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or discontinue FYCOMPA, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.

Pediatrics (< 18 years of age)

The safety and efficacy of FYCOMPA in pediatric patients have not been established and its use in this patient population is not indicated.

Geriatrics (> 65 years of age)

Clinical studies of FYCOMPA did not include sufficient numbers of patients aged 65 and over (n= 28) to determine whether they respond differently than younger patients. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of central nervous system events. Caution should be exercised during dose titration (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION; ACTION AND CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Pharmacokinetics).

Carcinogenesis and Mutagenesis

See PART II: SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION, TOXICOLOGY, Carcinogenicity andMutagenicity for discussion on animal data.

Patient Counselling Information

A Consumer Information sheet should be provided when FYCOMPA tablets are dispensed to the patient. Patients receiving FYCOMPA should be given the following instructions by the physician:

Serious Psychiatric and Behavioural Reactions, including Hostility and Aggression

Counsel patients, families and caregivers of the need to monitor for the emergence of anger, aggression, hostility, unusual changes in mood, personality, or behaviour, and other behavioural symptoms. Instruct patients, caregivers and families to report behaviours of concern immediately to healthcare providers.

Suicidal Thinking and Behaviour

Counsel patients, their caregivers, and families that AEDs, including FYCOMPA, may increase the risk of suicidal thinking and behaviour and advise them of the need to be alert for the emergence or worsening of symptoms of depression, any unusual changes in mood or behaviour, or the emergence of suicidal thoughts, behaviour, or thoughts about self-harm. Instruct patients, caregivers and families to report behaviours of concern immediately to healthcare providers.

Dizziness, Gait Disturbance, Somnolence, Fatigue and Falls

Counsel patients that FYCOMPA may cause dizziness, gait disturbance, somnolence, and fatigue. Advise patients taking FYCOMPA not to drive, operate complex machinery, or engage in other hazardous activities until they have become accustomed to any such effects associated with FYCOMPA. Counsel patients that FYCOMPA may cause falls and injuries.

Missed Doses

Counsel patients that if they miss a dose, they should resume dosing the following day at their prescribed daily dose. Instruct patients to contact their physician if more than one day of dosing is missed.

Withdrawal of Antiepileptic Drugs

Counsel patients that abrupt discontinuation of FYCOMPA may increase seizure frequency.

Alcohol and Other CNS Depressants

Counsel patients to avoid the use of alcohol with FYCOMPA, as this combination significantly worsened mood and increased anger in clinical trials. These effects may also be seen if FYCOMPA is taken with other CNS depressants.

Contraceptives

Counsel patients that FYCOMPA may decrease efficacy of contraceptives containing levonorgestrel.

Pregnancy Registry

To provide information regarding the effects of in utero exposure to FYCOMPA, recommend pregnant patients treated with FYCOMPA to enroll in the NAAED Pregnancy Registry. This can be done by calling the toll free number 1-888-233-2334, and must be done by patients themselves. Information on the registry can also be found at the website http://www.aedpregnancyregistry.org/.

Adverse Reactions

Adverse Drug Reaction Overview

In all controlled and uncontrolled trials in patients with partial-onset seizures, 1639 patients have received perampanel, of whom 1174 have been treated for 6 months and 703 for longer than 12 months.

In the controlled trial and open-label extension in patients with primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures (PGTC), 114 patients have received FYCOMPA, of whom 68 have been treated for 6 months and 36 for longer than 12 months.

In controlled Phase 3 partial-onset clinical trials, adverse reactions reported in ≥ 5% of patients treated with FYCOMPA (perampanel) were dizziness, somnolence, fatigue, irritability, nausea, ataxia, and fall. Most events in all treatment groups were considered mild or moderate.

The adverse event profile for the PGTC clinical trial was similar to that of the partial-onset trials.

Clinical Trial Adverse Drug Reactions

Because clinical trials are conducted under very specific conditions the adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials may not reflect the rates observed in practice and should not be compared to the rates in the clinical trials of another drug. Adverse drug reaction information from clinical trials is useful for identifying drug-related adverse events and for approximating rates.

Partial-Onset Seizures and Primary Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizures

The partial-onset data are also representative of the PGTC adverse event findings.

Tables 1 and 2 together provide the incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events that occurred in ≥2% of adult patients with partial-onset seizures in Phase 3 controlled adjunctive trials (n = 780 total randomized to FYCOMPA 4 to 12 mg/day plus other AEDs) and for which the frequency was greater than placebo (n=397). Table 1 presents the events that occurred in the absence of concomitant enzyme-inducing AEDs, while Table 2 presents the events that occurred in the presence of inducing AEDS (i.e., carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, phenytoin).

Table 1: Treatment-Emergent Adverse Event Incidence in the Absence of Enzyme-Inducing Concomitant AEDs, in Phase 3 Placebo-Controlled Adjunctive Trials in Patients with Partial-Onset Seizures (Events ≥ 2% of patients in the FYCOMPA 12 mg arm and numerically more frequent than placebo) (Patients ≥18 Years)
Placebo
n=170
%
FYCOMPA
4 mg
n=71
%
8 mg
n=156
%
12 mg
n=85
%
Ear and Labyrinth Disorders
   Vertigo 1 6 3 5
Eye Disorders
   Vision blurred 1 3 3 4
Gastrointestinal Disorders
   Diarrhea 4 4 5 5
   Nausea 4 4 8 11
   Paresthesia oral 0 0 0 2
   Vomiting 3 4 3 6
Infections and Infestations
   Pharyngitis 1 0 0 4
   Upper respiratory tract infection 2 3 3 5
Injury, Poisoning and Procedural Complications
   Chest injury 0 0 0 2
   Contusion 2 0 4 6
   Excoriation 1 1 2 2
   Falls 4 1 4 18
   Hand fracture 0 0 1 4
   Head injury 1 0 1 2
   Joint sprain 1 0 1 2
   Scratch 0 0 0 2
   Skin laceration 1 0 2 6
Investigations
   Weight gain 1 9 3 6
Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders
   Arthralgia 2 0 3 5
   Back pain 2 1 1 7
   Musculoskeletal pain 1 1 1 5
   Myalgia 2 0 2 5
   Pain in extremity 1 0 4 6
   Peripheral edema 0 1 1 4
Nervous System Disorders
   Asthenia 1 1 2 2
   Ataxia 0 1 6 15
   Aphasia 1 0 1 2
   Balance disorder 1 0 6 5
   Convulsion 3 0 2 4
   Coordination abnormal 0 1 1 2
   Dizziness 10 13 31 48
   Dysarthria 0 0 6 7
   Fatigue 4 9 13 20
   Gait disturbance 2 0 10 4
   Hypoaesthesia 1 0 0 2
   Lethargy 1 0 0 2
   Memory impairment 1 0 1 2
   Paresthesia 0 0 1 4
   Somnolence 7 7 20 21
Psychiatric Disorders
   Aggression 1 0 1 2
   Anger 1 0 0 7
   Anxiety 1 3 2 2
   Confusional state 0 0 1 2
   Depression 1 0 1 5
   Euphoric mood 0 0 0 2
   Insomnia 7 0 5 9
   Irritability 5 3 10 15
Renal and Urinary Disorders
   Haematuria 0 0 0 2
Respiratory, Thoracic and Mediastinal Disorders
   Cough 2 1 1 5
   Oropharyngeal pain 1 4 1 4
   Rhinorrhoea 2 0 1 4
   Epistaxis 0 0 1 4
Table 2: Treatment-Emergent Adverse Event Incidence in the Presence of Enzyme-Inducing Concomitant AEDs (i.e., Carbamazepine, Oxcarbazepine, Phenytoin), in Phase 3 Placebo-Controlled Adjunctive Trials in Patients with Partial-Onset Seizures (Events ≥ 2% of patients in the FYCOMPA 12 mg arm and numerically more frequent than placebo) (Patients ≥18 Years)
Placebo
n=227
%
FYCOMPA
4 mg
n=88
%
8 mg
n=230
%
12 mg
n=150
%
Ear and Labyrinth Disorders
   Vertigo 1 2 4 5
Eye Disorders
   Diplopia 1 2 2 5
   Vision blurred 2 0 4 5
Gastrointestinal Disorders
   Abdominal pain 2 1 2 3
   Nausea 5 1 4 7
Infections and Infestations
   Nasopharyngitis 4 1 4 5
Injury, Poisoning and Procedural Complications
   Falls 3 2 6 7
   Head injury 2 1 1 3
Investigations
   Gamma-Glutamyltransferase increased <1 0 1 2
   Weight increased 1 1 5 4
Metabolism and Nutrition Disorders
   Hyponatraemia <1 0 0 3
Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders
   Back pain 2 2 2 4
   Myalgia 2 1 1 3
Nervous System Disorders
   Asthenia <1 0 2 2
   Ataxia 0 0 1 5
   Balance disorder <1 0 5 3
   Dizziness 8 21 33 42
   Dysarthria 0 2 1 2
   Fatigue 4 8 7 9
   Gait disturbance 1 2 1 4
   Headache 10 13 10 15
   Hypersomnia 0 1 1 3
   Hypoaesthesia <1 0 0 3
   Memory impairment 1 0 1 2
   Paresthesia 1 0 <1 2
   Somnolence 8 11 13 15
Psychiatric Disorders
   Aggression 0 0 1 2
   Anxiety 1 1 4 5
   Irritability 1 6 4 11
   Mood altered <1 0 <1 2
Respiratory, Thoracic and Mediastinal Disorders
   Cough 2 0 1 3
   Oropharyngeal pain 1 1 1 2
Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders
   Rash 2 3 4 3

Less Common Clinical Trial Adverse Events (<2%)

The following are treatment-emergent adverse reactions reported in at least 3 patients treated with FYCOMPA in pooled Phase 3 studies (partial-onset and primary generalized tonic-clonic), that are also; numerically greater than placebo, and not described in other tables and sections.

Blood and Lymphatic System Disorders: anaemia, leukopenia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia

Cardiac Disorders: Tachycardia

Ear and Labyrinth Disorders: ear pain, motion sickness, tinnitus

Eye Disorders: lacrimation increased

Gastrointestinal Disorders: abdominal discomfort, constipation, gastric disorder, gastritis, gastroesophageal reflux disease, gingivitis, toothache

General Disorders and Administration Site Conditions: asthenia, chest discomfort, feeling drunk, malaise, pyrexia

Hepatobiliary Disorders: cholelithiasis

Infections and Infestations: acute sinusitis, bronchitis, candidiasis, lower respiratory tract infection, pharyngitis, pharyngitis streptococcal, respiratory tract infection, tonsillitis

Injury, Poisoning and Procedural Complications: accidental overdose, chest injury, drug toxicity, facial bones fracture, foot fracture, hand fracture, joint injury, laceration, limb injury, lip injury, road traffic accident, wrist fracture

Investigations: aspartate aminotransferase increased, blood creatinine phosphokinase increased, blood sodium decreased, blood triglycerides increased, electrocardiogram Qt prolonged, haemoglobin decreased

Metabolism and Nutrition Disorders: appetite disorder, decreased appetite, hypercholesterolaemia, increased appetite

Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders: arthritis, muscle spasms Nervous System Disorders: drooling, amnesia, post-traumatic headache, simple partial seizure, speech disorder, syncope, tremor

Psychiatric Disorders: abnormal behaviour, affect lability, disorientation, nervousness, mood swings, panic attack, sleep disorder, stress

Renal and Urinary Disorders: pollakiuria

Reproductive System and Breast Disorders: menorrhagia

Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders: acne, hypoaesthesia facial, pruritus, rash papular

Vascular Disorders: hypotension

Adverse Reactions Leading to Discontinuation

In controlled Phase 3 partial-onset seizures trials, the rate of discontinuation as a result of an adverse event was 3%, 8 % and 19 % in patients randomized to receive FYCOMPA at the recommended doses of 4 mg, 8 mg and 12 mg/day, respectively, and 5 % in patients randomized to receive placebo.

In controlled Phase 3 partial-onset seizures trials, the three most common events leading to discontinuation were dizziness, somnolence, and fatigue. At higher doses, the adverse events most commonly leading to discontinuation (≥1% in the 8 mg or 12 mg FYCOMPA group and greater than placebo) were dizziness, somnolence, vertigo, aggression, anger, ataxia, blurred vision, irritability, and dysarthria.

Central Nervous System Adverse Events

FYCOMPA use is associated with the occurrence of central nervous system (CNS) adverse events; the most significant of these can be classified into the following categories:

  1. aggression- and hostility-related events;
  2. somnolence and fatigue; and
  3. coordination difficulties, dizziness and falls
Table 3: Total Combined Incidence Rate at Higher Doses of FYCOMPA (8 to 12 mg) for Each of the Three Categories of CNS Adverse Events in the Absence or Presence of Enzyme-Inducing Concomitant AEDs in Phase 3 Placebo-Controlled Adjunctive Trials in Patients with Partial-Onset Seizures (Patients ≥18 Years)
Absence of Enzyme-Inducing Concomitant AEDs
Category of CNS Adverse
Events
FYCOMPA 8-12 mg/day
+ AED
Therapy (N=273)
Placebo + AED
Therapy (N=187)
Aggression- and Hostilityrelated* 21% 8%
Falls, Dizziness and Coordination Difficulties** 54% 15%
Somnolence & Fatigue*** 39% 11%
Presence of Enzyme-Inducing Concomitant AEDs
Category of CNS Adverse Events FYCOMPA 8-12 mg/day
+ AED
Therapy (N=412)
Placebo + AED
Therapy (N=255)
Aggression- and Hostilityrelated* 10% 4%
Falls, Dizziness and Coordination Difficulties** 47% 13%
Somnolence & Fatigue*** 24% 13%

* “Aggression- and hostility- related adverse events” encompasses the following terms, with verification via narratives as required: irritability, aggression, anger, mood swings, mood altered, agitation, abnormal behaviour, affect lability, affective disorder, hostility, emotional disorder, personality change, psychotic disorder, belligerence, frustration, impulse-control disorder, personality disorder, hostility, homicidal ideation

** “Falls, Dizziness and Coordination Difficulties” encompasses the following terms, with verification via narratives as required: dizziness, fall, vertigo, ataxia, gait disturbance, balance disorder, feeling drunk, motion sickness, coordination abnormal, cerebellar syndrome (plus various injuries/ fractures if due to falls, to be listed under “fall”)

*** “Somnolence and Fatigue” encompasses the following terms with verification via narratives as required: somnolence, fatigue, asthenia, hypersomnia, sleep disorder, lethargy, sedation

Weight Gain

Weight gain has been observed with FYCOMPA use in adults.

In the Phase 3 trials of partial-onset seizures, the percentages of adults who gained at least 7% and 15% of their baseline body weight in FYCOMPA-treated patients were: 9% and 1%, respectively, as compared to 5% and 0.2% of placebo-treated patients. The frequencies are similar for the trial of primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Clinical monitoring of weight is recommended.

Comparison of Gender and Race

No significant gender differences were noted in the incidence of adverse events. Although there were few non-Caucasian patients, no differences in the incidences of adverse events compared to Caucasian patients were observed (see ACTION AND CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Pharmacokinetics).

Post-Market Adverse Drug Reactions

The following adverse events not seen in controlled clinical trials have been observed in named patient programs or post-marketing experience. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure:

Hypersensitivity: Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS)

Drug Abuse and Dependence/Liability

Abuse

The human abuse potential of single oral doses of FYCOMPA (8 mg, 24 mg, and 36 mg) were compared to alprazolam C-IV (1.5 mg and 3 mg), and oral ketamine C-III (100 mg) in a study with recreational polydrug users. Supra-therapeutic doses of FYCOMPA 24 and 36 mg produced responses for “Euphoria” that were similar to ketamine 100 mg and alprazolam 3 mg. “Drug Liking”, “Overall Drug Liking”, and “Take Drug Again” for FYCOMPA were each statistically lower than ketamine 100mg. In addition, for “Bad Drug Effects”, FYCOMPA 24 mg and 36 mg produced responses significantly higher than ketamine 100mg. For “Sedation,” FYCOMPA 24 mg and 36 mg produced responses similar to alprazolam 3 mg and higher than ketamine 100 mg.

Additionally, on VAS measures related to dissociative phenomena such as “Floating”, “Spaced Out” and “Detached,” FYCOMPA at supra-therapeutic doses produced responses similar to ketamine 100 mg and greater than both doses of alprazolam tested. Of note, due to somnolence a number of subjects had missing data around Tmax of FYCOMPA. The above described data might represent an underestimate of FYCOMPA’s effects. The duration of effects of higher doses of FYCOMPA on the majority of measures was much greater than alprazolam 3 mg and ketamine 100 mg.

In this study, the incidence of euphoria as an adverse event following FYCOMPA administration 8 mg, 24 mg and 36 mg was 37% (14/38), 46% (17/37), 46% (17/37), respectively, which was higher than alprazolam 3 mg (13%) but lower than ketamine 100 mg (89%).

Physical and Psychological Dependence

The potential for FYCOMPA to produce withdrawal symptoms has not been adequately evaluated. Data from 92 (6.2%) patients in double-blind clinical trials of partial-onset seizures and 182 (14.9%) from open-label trials suggests that abrupt termination of FYCOMPA produced no signs or symptoms that are associated with a withdrawal syndrome indicative of physical dependence. Due to the ability of perampanel to produce euphoria-type adverse events in humans, psychological dependence cannot be excluded.

Drug Interactions

Overview

The most significant known interactions with FYCOMPA are with:

  • Potent CYP3A inducer anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) carbamazepine, phenytoin and oxcarbazepine;
  • Alcohol;
  • Oral contraceptives containing levonorgestrel

Interactions Between FYCOMPA and Other Anti-epileptic Drugs (AEDs)

Potential interactions between FYCOMPA (up to 12 mg once daily) and other AEDs were assessed in clinical studies examining partial-onset or primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures, and evaluated in a population PK analysis of four pooled Phase 3 studies.

Potent CYP3A enzyme inducers (carbamazepine, phenytoin, oxcarbazepine) have been shown to substantially increase FYCOMPA clearance and consequently to decrease plasma concentrations of FYCOMPA by 45-65%. Starting dose and frequency of titration increase are altered accordingly in the presence of these three AEDS, but there is a lack of data to support dose corrections at the high end of dosing. This effect should also be taken into account and managed when adding or withdrawing these anti-epileptic drugs from a patient’s treatment regimen.

The consequences of these interactions on average steady state concentrations are summarized in the following Table 4.

Table 4: FYCOMPA Interactions with AEDs
AED
coadministered
Influence of AED on
FYCOMPA concentration
Influence of FYCOMPA on
AED concentration
Carbamazepine ~65% decrease <10% decrease
Oxcarbazepine ~50% decrease 35% increase1
Phenytoin ~45% decrease No influence
Clobazam No influence <10% decrease
Clonazepam No influence No influence
Lamotrigine No influence <10% decrease
Levetiracetam No influence No influence
Phenobarbital No influence No influence
Topiramate ~20% decrease No influence
Valproic Acid No influence <10% decrease
Zonisamide No influence No influence
  1. Active metabolite monohydroxycarbazepine was not assessed.

Oxcarbazepine is rapidly metabolised by cytosolic reductase enzyme to the active metabolite, monohydroxycarbazepine. The effect of perampanel on monohydroxycarbazepine concentrations is not known.

Potential for Interaction with AEDs that Induce other than CYP3A4/5

The contributions of major CYP enzymes other than CYP3A4/5 to FYCOMPA metabolism have not been fully characterized, and thus the potential for adverse drug interaction with FYCOMPA cannot be excluded for other CYP450 strong inducers (see Pharmacokinetics, action and clinical pharmacology). Felbamate has been shown to decrease the concentrations of some drugs and may also reduce FYCOMPA concentrations. In a population pharmacokinetic analysis of patients with partial-onset seizures and primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures, in clinical trials (40 patients co-administered phenobarbital and 9 patients co-administered primidone) no effect on perampanel AUC was found; however, a modest effect of phenobarbital and primidone to decrease perampanel concentrations cannot be excluded.

Effect of Other Strong Cytochrome P450 Inducers on FYCOMPA (Including Rifampicin, St John’s Wort)

Strong inducers of cytochrome P450, such as rifampicin, hypericum (St. John’s Wort) and some anti-retrovirals, are expected to decrease FYCOMPA concentrations and should be avoided.

Effect of Strong Cytochrome P450 Inhibitors on FYCOMPA

Co-administration of single 1-mg dose of FYCOMPA with 400 mg once-daily doses of ketoconazole, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, for 8 days in healthy subjects increased FYCOMPA AUC by 20% and prolonged FYCOMPA half-life by 15% (68h vs 58h). The effect of ketoconazole on clinically effective doses of FYCOMPA 4 mg to 12 mg is not known. As well, larger effects cannot be excluded when FYCOMPA is combined with a CYP3A inhibitor with longer half-life than ketoconazole or when the inhibitor is given for a longer treatment duration. The potential for strong inhibitors of cytochrome P450 isoforms other than CYP3A4/5 to increase FYCOMPA concentrations cannot be excluded, as FYCOMPA metabolism has not yet been fully characterized (see action and clinical pharmacology, Pharmacokinetics).

Effect of FYCOMPA on CYP3A Substrates Such as Midazolam

In healthy subjects, FYCOMPA (6 mg once daily for 20 days) decreased midazolam (4 mg single-dose) AUC by 13%. A larger decrease in exposure of midazolam (or other sensitive CYP3A substrates) at higher FYCOMPA doses cannot be excluded.

Oral contraceptives

In healthy women receiving 12 mg (but not 4 or 8 mg/day) for 21 days concomitantly with a combined oral contraceptive (single dose of 30 μg ethinylestradiol and 150 μg levonorgestrel), FYCOMPA was shown to decrease the levonorgestrel exposure by approximately 40% (mean Cmax and AUC values). Ethinylestradiol AUC was not affected by FYCOMPA 12 mg whereas Cmax was decreased by 18%. Therefore, use of FYCOMPA with oral or implant contraceptives containing levonorgestrel may render them less effective and an additional reliable nonhormonal method (intra-uterine device (IUD), condom) is to be used (see warnings and precautions).

Alcohol and Other CNS Depressants

The effects of FYCOMPA on tasks involving alertness and vigilance such as driving ability were additive or supra-additive to the effects of alcohol itself, as found in a pharmacodynamic interaction study in healthy subjects. Multiple dosing of FYCOMPA 12 mg/day increased levels of anger, confusion, and depression as assessed using the Profile of Mood State 5-point rating scale (see action and clinical pharmacology). Therefore, patients taking FYCOMPA should be advised to avoid the use of alcohol (see warnings and precautions). These effects may also be seen when FYCOMPA is used in combination with other central nervous system (CNS) depressants (e.g., benzodiazepines, narcotics, barbiturates, sedating antihistamines).

Levodopa

In healthy subjects, FYCOMPA (4 mg once daily for 19 days) had no effect on Cmax or AUC of levodopa (100 mg single dose).

Drug-Food Interactions

Perampanel is almost completely absorbed after oral administration. Administration of FYCOMPA with food does not change the extent of absorption; however, administration with food slows drug absorption, resulting in a lower Cmax and later Tmax.

Drug-Herb Interactions

Interactions with herbal product have not been evaluated.

Drug-Laboratory Interactions

Interactions with laboratory tests have not been observed.

Drug-Lifestyle Interactions

Patients should be advised about the potential for somnolence or dizziness and advised not to drive or operate heavy machinery until they have gained sufficient experience on FYCOMPA to gauge whether it adversely affects their mental and/or motor performance.

Dosage and Administration

Dosing Considerations

Concomitant CYP3A Enzyme-Inducing AEDs Significantly Reduce Both FYCOMPA Plasma Levels and Efficacy

Carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine and phenytoin all decrease mean FYCOMPA blood levels by approximately 50-70% and substantially decrease FYCOMPA efficacy. As there are no clinical trial data for FYCOMPA doses greater than 12 mg/day, there is insufficient information to recommend dose adjustments to correct for this (see warnings and precautions; drug interactions).

Serious Aggression- and Hostility-Related Adverse Events

Closely monitor patients particularly during the titration period and at higher doses. FYCOMPA should be reduced if symptoms of aggression or hostility occur and should be discontinued immediately if symptoms are severe or worsening (see warnings and precautions; drug interactions; adverse events).

Recommended Dose and Dose Adjustment

In order to optimize the balance between efficacy and tolerability, FYCOMPA must always be titrated according to individual patient response.

FYCOMPA should be taken orally once daily at bedtime. The maximum recommended daily dose of FYCOMPA is 12 mg/day. Doses beyond 12 mg/day have not been studied in patients (see warnings and precautions).

Adults

Partial-Onset or Primary Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizures In the Presence of Enzyme-Inducing AEDs (EI-AEDs; including carbamazapine, oxcarbazepine, phenytoin)

The recommended starting dose of FYCOMPA in the presence of EI-AEDs, including carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine and phenytoin, is 4 mg/day. Based on clinical response and tolerability, the dose may be increased by increments of 2 mg to a maximum dose of 12 mg/day. Dose increases should occur no more frequently than at 1-week intervals.

Clinical trials revealed a lower efficacy in these patients at a given dose, compared to those not on enzyme-inducing AEDs. This is the result of lower FYCOMPA blood levels (see warnings and precautions; drug interactions), suggesting that relatively higher doses would be needed in this patient population to achieve similar efficacy as those not on enzyme-inducing AEDs. However, there are no efficacy or safety data to support FYCOMPA doses beyond 12 mg/day, as they have not been studied in patients.

When these enzyme-inducing AEDs are introduced or withdrawn from a patient’s treatment regimen, patient should be closely monitored for clinical response and tolerability. Dose adjustment of FYCOMPA may be necessary. (See also drug interactions, Overview and Drug-Drug Interaction sections.)

In the Absence of Enzyme-Inducing AEDs

Treatment with FYCOMPA should be initiated with a dose of 2 mg/day. The dose may be increased, based on clinical response and tolerability, by increments of 2 mg up to a dose of 8 mg/day. Dose increases should occur no more frequently than at 2-week intervals.

If FYCOMPA is well tolerated at 8 mg/day but clinical response is lacking, the dose may be increased by increments of 2 mg to 12 mg/day, depending upon individual clinical response and tolerability. The maximum recommended daily dose is 12 mg/day.

There was little difference in efficacy between 8 and 12 mg/day (see Partial-Onset Seizures), while the proportion of patients with adverse events, including aggression/hostility-related increased (see adverse events).

Pediatrics (<18 years of age):

The safety and efficacy of FYCOMPA in pediatric patients have not been established and its use in this patient population is not indicated.

Elderly Patients (≥65 years of age)

Clinical studies of FYCOMPA did not include sufficient numbers of patients aged 65 and over to determine the safety and efficacy of FYCOMPA in the elderly population. Because of increased likelihood for adverse reactions in the elderly, dosage increases during titration are recommended no more frequently than every 2 weeks.

Patients with Renal Impairment

Dose adjustment is not required in patients with mild renal impairment. Use in patients with moderate or severe renal impairment or patients undergoing hemodialysis is not recommended (see action and clinical pharmacology, Special Populations).

Patients with Hepatic Impairment

Dosage adjustment is recommended in patients with mild and moderate hepatic impairment, based on higher exposure and the longer half-life of perampanel. The maximum recommended daily dose is 6 mg for patients with mild hepatic impairment and 4 mg for patients with moderate hepatic impairment. Starting dose should be 2 mg per day with increments of 2 mg every two weeks until target dose is achieved. Dose increases in patients with mild and moderate hepatic impairment, as with all patients, should be based on clinical response and tolerability. Use in patients with severe hepatic impairment is not recommended (see action and clinical pharmacology, Special Populations).

Missed Dose

Single missed dose: As perampanel has a long half-life, the patient should wait and take their next dose as scheduled.

If more than 1 dose has been missed, for a continuous period of less than 5 half-lives (3 weeks for patients not taking perampanel metabolism-inducing anti-epileptic drugs (AED), 1 week for patients taking perampanel metabolism-inducing AEDs consideration should be given to restart treatment from the last dose level (see drug reactions).

If a patient has discontinued perampanel for a continuous period of more than 5 half-lives, it is recommended that initial dosing recommendations given above should be followed.

Discontinuing FYCOMPA

When withdrawing FYCOMPA, the dose should be gradually reduced. However, due to its long-half life and subsequent slow decline in plasma concentrations, FYCOMPA can be discontinued abruptly if absolutely needed.

Overdosage

There is limited clinical experience with FYCOMPA overdose in humans. The highest reported overdose was intentional and could have resulted in a dose up to 264 mg. This patient experienced events of altered mental status, agitation and aggressive behaviour and recovered without sequelae. In general, the adverse reactions associated with overdoses were similar to the reactions at therapeutic doses, with dizziness reported most frequently.

There is no available specific antidote to the overdose reactions of FYCOMPA. General supportive care of the patient is indicated including monitoring of vital signs and observation of the clinical status of the patient. Due to its long half-life, the effects caused by FYCOMPA could be prolonged. Because of low renal clearance, special interventions such as forced diuresis, dialysis or haemoperfusion are unlikely to be of value.

For management of a suspected drug overdose, contact your regional Poison Control Centre.

Action and Clinical Pharmacology

Mechanism of Action

FYCOMPA appears to be a selective, non-competitive antagonist of the ionotropic α-amino-3- hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) glutamate receptor on post-synaptic neurons. The precise mechanism by which FYCOMPA exerts its antiepileptic effects in humans remains to be fully elucidated.

Pharmacodynamics

Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (efficacy) analyses were performed based on the data from clinical trials for each of: Partial-onset seizures (pooled from 3 trials; n = 1109 patients), and primary generalized tonic-clonic (1 trial; n = 149 patients). In both cases, FYCOMPA exposure is correlated with reduction in seizure frequency.

Psychomotor Performance

In a healthy volunteer study to assess the effects of FYCOMPA on psychomotor performance using a standard battery of assessments including simulated driving, single and multiple doses of 8 mg and 12 mg impaired psychomotor performance in a dose-related manner. Performance testing returned to baseline within 2 weeks of cessation of FYCOMPA dosing.

Alertness and Mood

Levels of alertness decreased in a dose-related manner in healthy subjects dosed with FYCOMPA from 4 to 12 mg/day. Mood deteriorated following dosing of 12 mg/day only; the changes in mood were small and reflected a general lowering of alertness.

Interactions with Alcohol (psychomotor, and alertness and mood)

In the above study (see Psychomotor Performance), when administered to healthy subjects receiving alcohol to achieve a blood concentration of 80-100 mg/100mL, FYCOMPA consistently impaired simple psychomotor performance after single doses of 4 to 12 mg, and after 21 days of multiple 12 mg/day doses. The effects of FYCOMPA on complex tasks such as driving ability were additive or supra-additive to the impairment effects of alcohol. In another study (see Alertness and Mood, above), FYCOMPA magnified the negative effects of alcohol on vigilance and alertness, and on anger, confusion, and depression.

Cardiac Electrophysiology

Electrocardiographic effects of FYCOMPA were determined in a double-blind, randomized, placebo- and moxifloxacin-controlled clinical pharmacology trial in healthy subjects. FYCOMPA was administered in daily doses of up to 12 mg/day for 7 days. There was no evidence that FYCOMPA caused QT interval prolongation of clinical significance at doses of 6 or 12 mg (i.e., the upper bound of the 95% confidence interval for the largest placebo-adjusted baseline-corrected QTc was below 10 msec). There was no evidence that FYCOMPA had a dose-related or clinically important effect on QRS duration.

Pharmacokinetics

Pharmacokinetics of FYCOMPA are similar in healthy subjects, and patients with seizures (partial onset or PGTC). The half-life of FYCOMPA is about 105 hours, so that steady state is reached in about 2-3 weeks.

In healthy subjects, plasma concentrations of FYCOMPA increased in direct proportion to administered doses over the range of 2 to 12 mg. In a population pharmacokinetic analysis of patients with seizures (partial onset or PGTC) receiving FYCOMPA up to 8 or 12 mg/day, respectively, in placebo-controlled clinical trials, a linear relationship was found between dose and FYCOMPA plasma concentrations.

Absorption

FYCOMPA is readily absorbed after oral administration with no evidence of marked first-pass metabolism (absolute bioavailability is approximately 100%). Food does not affect the extent of absorption (AUC), but slows the rate of absorption. When administered with food, peak plasma concentrations are reduced by 30-40% and delayed by 2-3 hours compared with dosing in a fasted state.

Distribution

Data from in vitro studies indicate that, in the concentration range of 20 to 2000 ng/mL. FYCOMPA is approximately 95% bound to plasma proteins, mainly albumin and α 1-acid glycoprotein. Blood to plasma ratio of perampanel is 0.55- 0.59.

Results from in vitro studies indicate that perampanel is not a substrate or significant inhibitor of organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATP) 1B1 and 1B3, organic anion transporters (OAT) 1, 2, 3, and 4, organic cation transporters (OCT) 1, 2, and 3, and the efflux transporters P-glycoprotein and Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP).

Metabolism

FYCOMPA is extensively metabolized via primary oxidation and sequential glucuronidation. Based on results of in vitro studies using recombinant human CYPs and human liver microsomes, primary oxidative metabolism appears to be mediated by CYP3A4 and/or CYP3A5. However, in totality, the data are not conclusive that this is the only major pathway for metabolism of FYCOMPA: i.e., in vitro data regarding enzyme inhibitors affecting other than cytochrome P450 enzymes; the unexpectedly minimal impact of ketoconazole on perampanel blood levels; and the fact that the AEDs which do reduce FYCOMPA substantially are known to induce other CYP enzymes than CYP 3A4/5. In addition, although the metabolic profile studies are reassuring that the major metabolites of FYCOMPA have likely been identified, uncertainties remain about the quantification of individual metabolites in excreta.

One result of these uncertainties is the potential with FYCOMPA for increased formation of reactive intermediate metabolites (i.e., M7 and M15); with AEDs, these are associated with immune-mediated adverse drug reactions, including serious skin reactions. The long half-life of FYCOMPA may magnify the potential for mortality from serious skin reactions.

Following administration of radiolabeled perampanel, unchanged perampanel accounted for 74-80% of total radioactivity in systemic circulation, whereas only trace amounts of perampanel metabolites were observed in plasma.

Excretion

Following administration of a radiolabeled FYCOMPA dose to 8 healthy elderly subjects, 22% of recovered radioactivity was found in the urine and 48% in the feces. In urine and feces, recovered radioactivity was primarily composed of a mixture of oxidative and conjugated metabolites. In a population pharmacokinetic analysis of pooled data from 19 Phase 1 studies, the average t1/2 of perampanel was 105 hours. When dosed in combination with the strong CYP3A inducer carbamazepine, the average t1/2 was 25 hours. Apparent clearance of FYCOMPA in healthy subjects and patients was approximately 12 mL/min.

Special Populations and Conditions

Pediatrics (< 18 years of age)

The safety and efficacy of FYCOMPA in pediatric patients have not been established and its use in this patient population is not indicated. A total of n = 86 pediatric patients aged 12 to 17 years of age received FYCOMPA in controlled trials of partial-onset seizures or PGTC seizures. In a pooled population pharmacokinetic analysis of these adolescent patients, apparent clearance of perampanel in adolescents was slightly higher in adults (6.9-8.0%).

Geriatrics: (≥ 65 years of age)

In a population pharmacokinetic analysis of n = 11 patients ≥ 65 years of age with partial-onset seizures receiving FYCOMPA up to 12 mg/day in placebo-controlled trials, no significant effect of age on perampanel apparent clearance was found.

Gender

In a population pharmacokinetic analysis of patients with partial-onset or PGTC seizures, receiving FYCOMPA up to 12 or 8 mg/day, respectively, in placebo-controlled clinical trials, perampanel clearance was 18% lower in females compared to males.

Race

In a population pharmacokinetic analysis of patients with partial-onset or PGTC seizures, receiving FYCOMPA up to 12 or 8mg/day, respectively, in placebo-controlled trials, and including 614 Caucasians, 108 non-Chinese Asians, 97 Chinese, and 15 Blacks, there was no evidence of a significant effect of race on FYCOMPA clearance.

Hepatic Insufficiency

The pharmacokinetics of FYCOMPA following a single 1 mg dose were evaluated in 12 subjects with mild and moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh A and B, respectively) compared with 12 healthy, demographically matched subjects. The total (free and protein bound) exposure (AUC0-inf) of FYCOMPA was 50% greater in subjects with mild hepatic impairment and more than doubled (2.55-fold) in subjects with moderate hepatic impairment compared to their healthy controls. The AUC0-inf of free FYCOMPA in subjects with mild and moderate hepatic impairment was 1.8-fold and 3.3-fold, respectively, of those in matched healthy controls. The t1/2 was prolonged in mildly impaired (306 h vs 125 h) and moderately impaired (295 h vs 139 h) subjects compared to matched healthy subjects. FYCOMPA has not been studied in subjects with severe hepatic impairment.

Renal Insufficiency

A dedicated study has not been conducted to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of FYCOMPA in patients with renal impairment. Population pharmacokinetic analysis was performed on pooled data from patients with partial-onset seizures or PGTC seizures receiving FYCOMPA up to 12 or 8mg/day, respectively, in placebo-controlled clinical trials. Mild renal impairment was defined as creatinine clearance <80 mL/min (n = 59 of 764 total). Results showed that, in the presence of concomitant CYP3A-inducing AEDs, apparent clearance was slightly lower by 15.5% in patients with mild renal impairment (n= 30) compared to patients with normal renal function (n=442), with a corresponding 18 % higher AUC. In contrast, in the absence of concomitant CYP3A-inducing AEDs, FYCOMPA apparent clearance was slightly higher by 10.5% in patients with mild renal impairment (n=49) compared to patients with normal renal function (n=332), with a corresponding 10% lower AUC. Considering the substantial overlap in the exposure between normal and mildly impaired patients, no dosage adjustment is necessary for patients with mild renal impairment. There were insufficient patients with moderate renal impairment to support dosing in this population. FYCOMPA has not been studied in patients with severe renal impairment and patients undergoing hemodialysis.

Storage and Stability

Store at room temperature (15°C - 30°C). Keep out of the reach and sight of children.

Dosage Forms, Composition and Packaging

FYCOMPA (perampanel) tablets are supplied as follows:

2 mg tablet: FYCOMPA tablets 2 mg perampanel are orange, round, bi-convex, film-coated tablets debossed with “2” on one side and “Є 275” on the other. They are supplied in HDPE bottles of 30 and 90 tablets, and as blisters (PVC/aluminum) in packs of 7 tablets.
4 mg tablet: FYCOMPA tablets 4 mg perampanel are red, round, bi-convex, film-coated tablets debossed with “4” on one side and “Є 277” on the other. They are supplied in HDPE bottles of 30 and 90 tablets, and as blisters (PVC/aluminum) in packs of 7, 28, 84, and 98 tablets.
6 mg tablet: FYCOMPA tablets 6 mg perampanel are pink, round, bi-convex, film-coated tablets debossed with “6” on one side and “Є 294” on the other. They are supplied in HDPE bottles of 30 and 90 tablets, and as blisters (PVC/aluminum) in packs of 7, 28, 84, and 98 tablets.
8 mg tablet: FYCOMPA tablets 8 mg perampanel are purple, round, bi-convex, film-coated tablets debossed with “8” on one side and “Є 295” on the other. They are supplied in HDPE bottles of 30 and 90 tablets, and as blisters (PVC/aluminum) in packs of 7, 28, 84, and 98 tablets.
10 mg tablet: FYCOMPA tablets 10 mg perampanel are green, round, bi-convex, film-coated tablets debossed with “10” on one side and “Є 296” on the other. They are supplied in HDPE bottles of 30 and 90 tablets, and as blisters (PVC/aluminum) in packs of 7, 28, 84, and 98 tablets.
12 mg tablet: FYCOMPA tablets 12 mg perampanel are blue, round, bi-convex, film-coated tablets debossed with “12” on one side and “Є 297” on the other. They are supplied in HDPE bottles of 30 and 90 tablets, and as blisters (PVC/aluminum) in packs of 7, 28, 84, and 98 tablets.

FYCOMPA tablets contain the following inactive ingredients: hypromellose 2910, lactose monohydrate, low substituted hydroxypropyl cellulose, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, polyethylene glycol 8000, povidone, talc and titanium dioxide and contain the following colouring agents:

2 mg tablets: yellow ferric oxide, red ferric oxide

4 mg tablets: red ferric oxide

6 mg tablets: red ferric oxide

8 mg tablets: black ferric oxide, red ferric oxide

10 mg tablets: FD&C Blue #2 indigo carmine aluminum lake, yellow ferric oxide

12 mg tablets: FD&C Blue #2 indigo carmine aluminum lake