Elvanse Adult 30mg, 50mg and 70mg Capsules: Indications, Dosage, Precautions, Adverse Effects
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Elvanse Adult 30mg, 50mg and 70mg Capsules - Product Information

Manufacture: Shire, Inc.
Country: Great Britain
Condition: ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder)
Class: CNS stimulants
Form: Capsules
Ingredients: lisdexamfetamine dimesylate, microcrystalline cellulose, croscarmellose sodium, magnesium stearate, gelatin, black ink (shellac and black iron oxide E172), titanium dioxide (E171)

Name of the Medicinal Product

Elvanse Adult 30 mg capsules, hard.

Elvanse Adult 50 mg capsules, hard.

Elvanse Adult 70 mg capsules, hard.

Qualitative and Quantitative Composition

30 mg Capsules: Each capsule contains 30 mg lisdexamfetamine dimesylate, equivalent to 8.9 mg of dexamfetamine.

50 mg Capsules: Each capsule contains 50 mg lisdexamfetamine dimesylate, equivalent to 14.8 mg of dexamfetamine.

70 mg Capsules: Each capsule contains 70 mg lisdexamfetamine dimesylate, equivalent to 20.8 mg of dexamfetamine.

For the full list of excipients, see List of excipients.

Pharmaceutical Form

Capsule, hard.

Elvanse Adult 30 mg capsule: white opaque body and pink opaque cap, printed 'S489' and '30 mg' in black ink.

Elvanse Adult 50 mg capsule: white opaque body and blue opaque cap, printed 'S489' and '50 mg' in black ink.

Elvanse Adult 70 mg capsule: blue opaque body and pink opaque cap, printed 'S489' and '70 mg' in black ink.

Each capsule measures approximately 16 mm long and 6 mm wide.

Clinical Particulars

Therapeutic Indications

Elvanse Adult is indicated as part of a comprehensive treatment programme for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults.

Elvanse Adult is not indicated in all adult patients and the decision to use the medicinal product must take into consideration the profile of the patient, including a thorough assessment of the severity and chronicity of the patient's symptoms, the potential for abuse, misuse or diversion and clinical response to any previous pharmacotherapies for the treatment of ADHD.

Treatment must be under the supervision of a specialist in behavioural disorders. Diagnosis should be based on a complete history and evaluation of the patient according to current DSM criteria or ICD guidelines. Diagnosis cannot be made solely on the presence of one or more symptom. In adults, the presence of symptoms of ADHD that were pre- existing in childhood is required and should be confirmed retrospectively (according to the patient's medical record or, if not available, through appropriate and structured instruments or interviews). Based on clinical judgment, patients should have ADHD of at least moderate severity as indicated by at least moderate functional impairment in two or more settings (for example, social, academic, and/or occupational functioning), affecting several aspects of an individual's life.

The specific aetiology of this syndrome is unknown, and there is no single diagnostic test. Adequate diagnosis requires the use of medical and specialised psychological, educational, and social resources.

A comprehensive treatment programme typically includes psychological, educational, behavioural, occupational and social measures as well as pharmacotherapy and is aimed at stabilising the adult patient with a behavioural syndrome characterised by symptoms which may include chronic history of short attention span, distractibility, impulsivity and hyperactivity.

Posology and Method of Administration

Treatment must be initiated under the supervision of an appropriate specialist in behavioural disorders.

Posology

Dosage should be individualised according to the therapeutic needs and response of the patient. Careful dose titration is necessary at the start of treatment with Elvanse Adult.

The starting dose is 30 mg taken once daily in the morning. The dose may be increased by 20 mg increments, at approximately weekly intervals. Elvanse Adult should be administered orally at the lowest effective dosage.

The maximum recommended dose is 70 mg/day; higher doses have not been studied.

In patients with severe renal insufficiency (GFR 15 to <30 mL/min/1.73 m2 or CrCl <30 mL/min) the maximum dose should not exceed 50 mg/day. Further dosage reduction should be considered in patients undergoing dialysis (see section Pharmacokinetic properties).

Treatment must be stopped if the symptoms do not improve after appropriate dosage adjustment over a 1 month period. If paradoxical aggravation of symptoms or other intolerable adverse events occur, the dosage should be reduced or discontinued.

Method of administration

Elvanse Adult may be taken with or without food.

Elvanse Adult may be swallowed whole, or the capsule opened and the entire contents emptied and mixed with a soft food such as yogurt or in a glass of water or orange juice. If the contents include any compacted powder, a spoon may be used to break apart the powder in the soft food or liquid. The contents should be stirred until completely dispersed. The patient should consume the entire mixture of soft food or liquid immediately; it should not be stored. The active ingredient dissolves completely once dispersed; however, a film containing the inactive ingredients may remain in the glass or container once the mixture is consumed.

The patient should not take anything less than one capsule per day and a single capsule should not be divided.

In the event of a missed dose, Elvanse Adult dosing can resume the next day. Afternoon doses should be avoided because of the potential for insomnia.

Pre-treatment evaluation

Prior to prescribing, it is necessary to conduct a baseline evaluation of a patient's cardiovascular status including blood pressure and heart rate. A comprehensive history should document concomitant medications, past and present co- morbid medical and psychiatric disorders or symptoms, family history of sudden cardiac/unexplained death, and accurate recording of pre treatment weight (see Special warnings and precautions for use).

Consistent with other stimulants, the potential for abuse, misuse or diversion of Elvanse Adult should be considered prior to prescribing (see Special warnings and precautions for use).

Ongoing monitoring

Psychiatric, and cardiovascular status should be continually monitored (see Special warnings and precautions for use).

  • Blood pressure and pulse should be recorded at each adjustment of dose and at least every six months.
  • Development of de novo or worsening of pre-existing psychiatric disorders should be monitored at every adjustment of dose and then at least every six months and at every visit.

Patients should be monitored for the risk of diversion, misuse, and abuse of Elvanse Adult.

Long-term use

Pharmacological treatment of ADHD may be needed for extended periods. The physician who elects to use Elvanse Adult for extended periods (over 12 months) should re-evaluate the usefulness of Elvanse Adult at least yearly, and consider trial periods off medication to assess the patient's functioning without pharmacotherapy.

Older people

Dexamfetamine clearance is reduced in the elderly, therefore dose adjustment may be required (see Pharmacokinetic properties).

Patients with renal impairment

Due to reduced clearance in patients with severe renal insufficiency (GFR 15 to <30 mL/min/1.73 m2 or CrCl <30 mL/min) the maximum dose should not exceed 50 mg/day. Further dosage reduction should be considered in patients undergoing dialysis. Lisdexamfetamine and dexamfetamine are not dialysable.

Patients with hepatic impairment

No studies have been conducted in patients with hepatic impairment.

Paediatric population

Elvanse Adult is indicated for adults. For children and adolescents aged 6 to 17 years, another product containing lisdexamfetamine dimesylate is available. Currently available data are described in sections Undesirable effects, Pharmacodynamic properties and Pharmacokinetic properties.

Elvanse Adult should not be used in children under the age of 6 years. Safety and efficacy in this age group has not been established.

Contraindications

Hypersensitivity to sympathomimetic amines or any of the excipients listed in see section List of excipients.

Concomitant use of monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI) or within 14 days after MAOI treatment (hypertensive crisis may result; see section Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction).

Hyperthyroidism or thyrotoxicosis.

Agitated states.

Symptomatic cardiovascular disease.

Advanced arteriosclerosis.

Moderate to severe hypertension.

Glaucoma.

Special Warnings and Precautions for Use

Abuse and dependence

Stimulants including Elvanse Adult have a potential for abuse, misuse, or diversion that physicians should consider when prescribing this product. The risk of misuse may be greater in adults (especially young adults) than in paediatric use. Stimulants should be prescribed cautiously to patients with a history of substance abuse or dependence.

Abuse of amfetamines can lead to tolerance, and psychological dependence with varying degrees of abnormal behaviour. Symptoms of amphetamine abuse may include dermatoses, insomnia, irritability, hyperactivity, emotional lability and psychosis. Withdrawal symptoms such as fatigue and depression have been reported.

Cardiovascular adverse events

Sudden death and pre-existing structural cardiac abnormalities or other serious heart problems
Children and adolescents

Sudden death has been reported in children and adolescents taking CNS stimulants, including those with structural cardiac abnormalities or other serious heart problems. Although some serious heart problems alone carry an increased risk of sudden death, stimulant products generally should not be used in children or adolescents with known serious structural cardiac abnormalities, cardiomyopathy, serious heart rhythm abnormalities, or other serious cardiac problems that may place them at increased vulnerability to the sympathomimetic effects of a stimulant drug.

Adults

Sudden deaths, stroke, and myocardial infarction have been reported in adults taking stimulant drugs at usual doses for ADHD. Although the role of stimulants in these adult cases is unknown, adults have a greater likelihood than children of having serious structural cardiac abnormalities, cardiomyopathy, serious heart rhythm abnormalities, coronary artery disease, or other serious cardiac problems. Adults with such abnormalities should also generally not be treated with stimulant drugs.

Hypertension and other cardiovascular conditions

Stimulant medications cause a modest increase in average blood pressure (about 2 - 4 mmHg) and average heart rate (about 3 - 6 bpm), and individuals may have larger increases. While the mean changes alone would not be expected to have short-term consequences, all patients should be monitored for changes in heart rate and blood pressure. Caution is indicated in treating patients whose underlying medical conditions might be compromised by increases in blood pressure or heart rate, e.g., those with pre-existing hypertension, heart failure, recent myocardial infarction, or ventricular arrhythmia.

The use of Elvanse Adult is contraindicated in patients with symptomatic cardiovascular disease and also in those patients with moderate to severe hypertension (see section Contraindications).

Cardiomyopathy

Cardiomyopathy has been reported with chronic amfetamine use. It has also been reported with Elvanse Adult.

Assessing cardiovascular status in patients being treated with stimulant medications

All patients who are being considered for treatment with stimulant medications should have a careful history (including assessment for a family history of sudden death or ventricular arrhythmia) and physical exam to assess for the presence of cardiac disease, and should receive further cardiac evaluation if findings suggest such disease (e.g., electrocardiogram or echocardiogram). Patients who develop symptoms such as exertional chest pain, unexplained syncope, or other symptoms suggestive of cardiac disease during stimulant treatment should undergo a prompt cardiac evaluation.

Psychiatric adverse events

Pre-existing psychosis

Administration of stimulants may exacerbate symptoms of behaviour disturbance and thought disorder in patients with pre-existing psychotic disorders.

Bipolar illness

Particular care should be taken in using stimulants to treat ADHD patients with comorbid bipolar disorder because of concern for possible induction of mixed/manic episode in such patients. Prior to initiating treatment with a stimulant, patients with comorbid depressive symptoms should be adequately screened to determine if they are at risk for bipolar disorder; such screening should include a detailed psychiatric history, including a family history of suicide, bipolar disorder, and depression.

Emergence of new psychotic or manic symptoms

Treatment emergent psychotic or manic symptoms, e.g., hallucinations, delusional thinking, or mania in children and adolescents without prior history of psychotic illness or mania can be caused by stimulants at usual doses. If such symptoms occur, consideration should be given to a possible causal role of the stimulant, and discontinuation of treatment may be appropriate.

Aggression

Aggressive behaviour or hostility is often observed in children and adolescents with ADHD, and has been reported in clinical trials and the postmarketing experience of some medications indicated for the treatment of ADHD including Elvanse Adult. Stimulants may cause aggressive behaviour or hostility. Patients beginning treatment for ADHD should be monitored for the appearance of or worsening of aggressive behaviour or hostility.

Tics

Stimulants have been reported to exacerbate motor and phonic tics and Tourette's syndrome. Therefore, clinical evaluation for tics and Tourette's syndrome should precede use of stimulant medications.

Long-term effect on weight

Stimulants have been associated with weight loss. Weight should be monitored during treatment with stimulants, and patients who are losing weight may need to have their treatment interrupted

Seizures

There is some clinical evidence that stimulants may lower the convulsive threshold in patients with prior history of seizure, in patients with prior EEG abnormalities in absence of seizures, and very rarely, in patients without a history of seizures and no prior EEG evidence of seizures. In the presence of seizures, the drug should be discontinued.

Visual disturbance

Difficulties with accommodation and blurring of vision have been reported with stimulant treatment.

Prescribing and dispensing

The least amount of Elvanse Adult feasible should be prescribed or dispensed in order to minimise the risk of possible overdose by the patient.

Use with other sympathomimetic drugs

Elvanse Adult should be used with caution in patients who use other sympathomimetic drugs (see section Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction).

Interaction With Other Medicinal Products and Other Forms of Interaction

In vitro enzyme inhibition

Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate was not an in vitro inhibitor of the major human CYP450 isoforms (CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4) in human hepatic microsomal suspensions, nor was it an in vitro inducer of CYP1A2, CYP2B6 or CYP3A4/5 in cultured fresh human hepatocytes. Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate was not an in vitro substrate for P-gp in MDCKII cells nor an in vitro inhibitor of P-gp in Caco-2 cells and is therefore unlikely to be involved in clinical interactions with drugs transported by the P-gp pump.

An in vivo human study of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate did not result in any clinically meaningful effect on the pharmacokinetics of drugs metabolized by CYP1A2, CYP2D6, CYP2C19, or CYP3A.

Agents whose blood levels may be impacted by Elvanse Adult

Extended release guanfacine: In a drug interaction study, administration of an extended release guanfacine in combination with Elvanse Adult induced a 19% increase in guanfacine maximum plasma concentrations, whereas, exposure (area under the curve; AUC) was increased by 7%. These small changes are not expected to be clinically meaningful. In this study, no effect on dexamfetamine exposure was observed following co-administration of extended release guanfacine and Elvanse Adult.

Extended release venlafaxine: In a drug interaction study, administration of 225 mg extended release venlafaxine, a CYP2D6 substrate, in combination with 70 mg Elvanse Adult induced a 9% decrease in the Cmax and 17% decrease in the AUC for the primary active metabolite o-desmethylvenlafaxine and a 10% increase in Cmax and 13% increase in AUC for venlafaxine. Dexamfetamine may be a weak inhibitor of CYP2D6. Lisdexamfetamine has no effect on the AUC and Cmax of the composite of venlafaxine and o-desmethylvenlafaxine. These small changes are not expected to be clinically meaningful. In this study, no effect on dexamfetamine exposure was observed following co-administration of extended release venlafaxine and Elvanse Adult.

Agents and conditions that alter urinary pH and impact the urinary excretion and half-life of amfetamine

Ascorbic acid and other agents and conditions ( thiazide diuretics, diets high in animal protein, diabetes, respiratory acidosis) that acidify urine increase urinary excretion and decrease the half-life of amfetamine. Sodium bicarbonate and other agents and conditions (diets high in fruits and vegetables, urinary tract infections and vomiting) that alkalinise urine decrease urinary excretion and extend the half-life of amfetamine.

Monoamine oxidase inhibitors

Amfetamine should not be administered during or within 14 days following the administration of monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI) because it can increase the release of norepinephrine and other monoamines. This can cause severe headaches and other signs of hypertensive crisis. A variety of toxic neurological effects and malignant hyperpyrexia can occur, sometimes with fatal outcomes (see section Contraindications).

Serotonergic drugs

Serotonin syndrome has rarely occurred in association with the use of amphetamines such as Elvanse Adult, when given in conjunction with serotonergic drugs, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs). It has also been reported in association with overdose of amphetamines, including Elvanse Adult (see section Overdose). There were no reported cases of serotonin syndrome when Elvanse Adult was administered with SSRIs and SNRIs in clinical trials.

Agents whose effects may be reduced by amfetamines

Antihypertensives: Amfetamines may decrease the effectiveness of guanethidine or other antihypertensive medications.

Agents whose effects may be potentiated by amfetamines

Amfetamines potentiate the analgesic effect of narcotic analgesics.

Agents that may reduce the effects of amfetamines

Chlorpromazine

Chlorpromazine blocks dopamine and norepinephrine receptors, thus inhibiting the central stimulant effects of amfetamines.

Haloperidol

Haloperidol blocks dopamine receptors, thus inhibiting the central stimulant effects of amfetamines.

Lithium carbonate

The anorectic and stimulatory effects of amfetamines may be inhibited by lithium carbonate.

Use with alcohol

There are limited data on the possible interaction with alcohol.

Drug/laboratory test interactions

Amfetamines can cause a significant elevation in plasma corticosteroid levels. This increase is greatest in the evening. Amfetamine may interfere with urinary steroid determinations.

Fertility, Pregnancy and Lactation

Pregnancy

There are no adequate and well controlled studies of Elvanse Adult in pregnant women. Dexamfetamine, the active metabolite of lisdexamfetamine, crosses the placenta.

Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate had no effect on embryofoetal development or survival when administered orally to pregnant rats and rabbits (see section Preclinical safety data). Administration of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate to juvenile rats was associated with reductions in growth measurements at clinically relevant exposures.

The physician should discuss Elvanse Adult treatment in the context of potential pregnancy or lactation with female patients of child-bearing potential. Elvanse Adult should only be used during pregnancy if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the foetus.

Breast-feeding

Amfetamines are excreted in human milk. Elvanse Adult should not be used during breast-feeding.

Fertility

Amfetamine has shown no harmful effects on fertility in a rat study (see section Preclinical safety data). The effect of Elvanse Adult on human fertility has not been investigated.

Effects on Ability to Drive and Use Machines

Elvanse Adult can cause dizziness, drowsiness and visual disturbances including difficulties with accommodation, diplopia and blurred vision. These could have a moderate influence on the ability to drive and use machines. Patients should be warned of these possible effects and advised that if affected, they should avoid potentially hazardous activities such as driving or operating machinery.

This medicine can impair cognitive function and can affect a patient's ability to drive safely. This class of medicine is in the list of drugs included in regulations under 5a of the Road Traffic Act 1988. When prescribing this medicine, patients should be told:

  • The medicine is likely to affect your ability to drive.
  • Do not drive until you know how the medicine affects you.
  • It is an offence to drive while under the influence of this medicine.
  • However, you would not be committing an offence (called 'statutory defence') if:
    • The medicine has been prescribed to treat a medical problem and
    • You have taken it according to the instructions given by the prescriber and in the information provided with the medicine and
    • It was not affecting your ability to drive safely.

Undesirable Effects

Summary of the safety profile

Adverse reactions observed with Elvanse Adult treatment mainly reflect side effects commonly associated with stimulant use. Very common adverse reactions seen in adults include decreased appetite, insomnia, dry mouth and headache.

Tabulated summary of adverse reactions

The following table presents all adverse reactions based on clinical trials and spontaneous reporting. The following definitions apply to the frequency terminology used hereafter:

Very common (≥ 1/10)

Common (≥ 1/100 to < 1/10)

Uncommon (≥ 1/1,000 to < 1/100)

Rare (≥ 1/10,000 to < 1/1,000)

Very rare (< 1/10,000)

Frequency not known (cannot be estimated from the available data).

An asterisk () indicates that additional information on the respective adverse reaction is provided below the table.

System/Organ ClassAdverse ReactionChildren (6 to 12 years)Adolescents (13 to 17 years)Adults
Immune System DisordersAnaphylactic reactionFrequency not knownFrequency not knownFrequency not known
HypersensitivityUncommonFrequency not knownUncommon
Metabolism and
Nutrition Disorders
Decreased appetiteVery commonVery commonVery common
Psychiatric
Disorders
InsomniaVery commonVery commonVery common
AgitationUncommonUncommonCommon
AnxietyUncommonCommonCommon
LogorrheaUncommonUncommonUncommon
Libido decreasedNot applicableNot reportedCommon
DepressionUncommonUncommonUncommon
TicCommonUncommonUncommon
Affect labilityCommonCommonUncommon
DysphoriaUncommonFrequency not knownUncommon
EuphoriaFrequency not knownUncommonUncommon
Psychomotor
 hyperactivity
UncommonUncommonCommon
BruxismUncommonFrequency not knownCommon
DermatillomaniaUncommonUncommonUncommon
Psychotic episodesFrequency not knownFrequency not knownFrequency not known
ManiaUncommonFrequency not knownUncommon
HallucinationUncommonUncommonFrequency not known
AggressionCommonUncommonFrequency not known
Nervous System
Disorders
HeadacheVery commonVery commonVery common
DizzinessCommonCommonCommon
RestlessnessUncommonCommonCommon
TremorUncommonCommonCommon
SomnolenceCommonCommonUncommon
SeizureFrequency not knownFrequency not knownFrequency not known
DyskinesiaUncommonFrequency not knownUncommon
Eye DisordersVision blurredUncommonFrequency not knownUncommon
MydriasisUncommonUncommonFrequency not known
Cardiac DisordersTachycardiaUncommonCommonCommon
PalpitationUncommonCommonCommon
CardiomyopathyFrequency not knownFrequency not knownFrequency not known
Vascular disordersRaynaud's
phenomenon
UncommonFrequency not knownFrequency not known
Respiratory,
Thoracic and Mediastinal Disorders
DyspnoeaUncommonCommonCommon
Gastrointestinal
Disorders
Dry mouthCommonCommonVery common
DiarrhoeaCommonCommonCommon
ConstipationCommonCommonCommon
Upper abdominal painCommonCommonCommon
NauseaCommonCommonCommon
VomitingCommonCommonUncommon
Hepatobilary
Disorders
Eosinophilic HepatitisFrequency not knownFrequency not knownFrequency not known
Skin and
Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders
HyperhidrosisUncommonUncommonCommon
UrticariaUncommonUncommonUncommon
RashCommonUncommonUncommon
AngioedemaFrequency not knownFrequency not knownFrequency not known
Stevens-Johnson SyndromeFrequency not knownFrequency not knownFrequency not known
Reproductive System
and Breast Disorders
Erectile dysfunctionNot applicableUncommonCommon
General Disorders
and Administration Site Conditions
IrritabilityCommonCommonCommon
FatigueCommonCommonCommon
Feeling jitteryUncommonCommonCommon
PyrexiaCommonUncommonUncommon
InvestigationsBlood pressure increasedUncommonCommonCommon
Weight decreasedVery CommonVery CommonCommon

Description of selected adverse reactions

Insomnia

Includes insomnia, initial insomnia, and middle insomnia.

Eosinophilic hepatitis

No cases were reported in the clinical studies.

Angioedema

No cases were reported in the clinical studies.

Stevens-Johnson syndrome

No cases were reported in the clinical studies.

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the Yellow Card Scheme.

Website: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard

Overdose

The prolonged release of dexamfetamine after administration of Elvanse Adult should be considered when treating patients with overdose.

Manifestations of acute overdosage with amfetamines include restlessness, tremor, hyperreflexia, rapid respiration, confusion, aggression, hallucinations, panic states, hyperpyrexia, and rhabdomyolysis. Fatigue and depression usually follow the central nervous system stimulation. Cardiovascular effects include arrhythmias, hypertension or hypotension, and circulatory collapse. Gastrointestinal symptoms include nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, and abdominal cramps. Fatal poisoning is usually preceded by convulsions and coma.

Management of acute amfetamine intoxication is largely symptomatic and includes gastric lavage, administration of activated charcoal, administration of a cathartic, and sedation. Acidification of the urine increases amfetamine excretion but is believed to increase risk of acute renal failure if myoglobinuria is present. If acute severe hypertension complicates amfetamine overdosage, administration of intravenous phentolamine has been suggested. However, a gradual drop in blood pressure will usually result when sufficient sedation has been achieved.

Lisdexamfetamine and dexamfetamine are not dialysable.

Pharmacological Properties

Pharmacodynamic Properties

Pharmacotherapeutic group: Centrally Acting Sympathomimetics, ATC code: N06 BA12.

Mechanism of action

Elvanse Adult is a pharmacologically inactive prodrug. After oral administration, lisdexamfetamine is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and hydrolysed primarily by red blood cells to dexamfetamine, which is responsible for the drug's activity.

Amfetamines are non-catecholamine sympathomimetic amines with CNS stimulant activity. The mode of therapeutic action of amfetamine in ADHD is not fully established, however it is thought to be due to its ability to block the reuptake of norepinephrine and dopamine into the presynaptic neuron and increase the release of these monoamines into the extraneuronal space. The prodrug, lisdexamfetamine, does not bind to the sites responsible for the reuptake of norepinephrine and dopamine in vitro.

Clinical efficacy and safety

The efficacy of Elvanse Adult in the treatment of ADHD has been demonstrated in four controlled trials in adults, one controlled study in adolescents aged 13-17 years, three controlled trials in children and adolescents (6 to 17 years) and three controlled studies in children aged 6 to 12 years. The patients in all these studies met DSM-IV-TR criteria for ADHD.

In clinical studies conducted in children and adults, when Elvanse Adult was taken once daily in the morning efficacy was ongoing at 14 hours after dosing in adults and 13 hours in children.

Adult population

The efficacy of Elvanse Adult in the treatment of adults who met DSM-IV-TR criteria for ADHD has been demonstrated in four controlled trials in which 846 patients were enrolled.

Study 1 was a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study conducted in adults (n=420). In this 4- week study, patients were randomised to fixed dose treatment groups receiving final doses of 30, 50, or 70 mg of Elvanse Adult or placebo. All subjects receiving Elvanse Adult were initiated on 30 mg for the first week of treatment. Subjects assigned to the 50 and 70 mg dose groups were titrated by 20 mg per week until they achieved their assigned dose. Significant improvements in ADHD symptoms, based upon investigator ratings on the ADHD Rating Scale with adult prompts total score (ADHD-RS), were observed at endpoint for all Elvanse Adult doses compared to placebo (see Table 1). Treatment with Elvanse Adult significantly reduced the degree of functional impairment as measured by improvement on the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I) rating scale compared to placebo.

Table 1: Change from Baseline to Endpoint in ADHD-RS with Adult Prompts Total Score at Endpoint1 (Full Analysis Set)
Placebo30mg50mg70mg
Baseline Total ScoreN62115117120
Mean (SD)39.4 (6.42)40.5 (6.21)40.8 (7.30)41.0 (6.02)
Change from baseline at EndpointN62115117120
LS Mean (SE)-8.2 (1.43)-16.2 (1.06)-17.4 (1.05)-18.6 (1.03)
Placebo-adjusted differenceLS Mean
(95% CI)
p-value
NA-8.04
(-12.14, -3.95)
<0.0001
-9.16
(-13.25, -5.08)
<0.0001
-10.41
(-14.49, -6.33)
<0.0001

1 Endpoint is the last post-randomisation treatment week for which a valid ADHD-RS-IV Total Score is obtained.

Note: Dunnett's test was used for the construction of CIs and p-values; p-values are the adjusted p-values and should be compared to a critical alpha of 0.05.

LS=least squares; SD= standard deviation; SE=standard error.

Study 2 was a 10-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study conducted to evaluate change in executive function behaviours, key quality of life outcomes, and ADHD symptoms in adults with ADHD and a clinically significant impairment in executive function. The study enrolled adults aged 18 to 55 years (n=161) who met DSM-IV criteria for ADHD as assessed by a total score of ≥65 on the Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Function – Adult Version (BRIEF-A) Global Executive Composite (GEC) T-score by subject-report and a score of ≥28 using the Adult ADHD-RS with prompts at the Baseline visit. At Week 10 the mean subject-reported BRIEF-A GEC T-score was 68.3 for the placebo group and 57.2 for the SPD489 group, representing LS mean changes from baseline of -11.1 and -22.3, respectively. The effect size was 0.74 in favour of the SPD489 group. The difference in LS mean change from baseline to week 10 (-11.2) was significantly better in the Elvanse Adult group compared with placebo (p<0.0001). Secondary efficacy measures of Adult ADHD Impact Module (AIM-A), ADHD-RS with adult prompts, CGI-I and the ADHD Index T- score of the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scale – Observer: Short Version (CAARS-O:S) were all significantly better in the Elvanse Adult group compared with placebo.

Study 3 was a multi-centre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. This study of Elvanse Adult was designed to simulate a workplace environment and enrolled 142 adults. Following a 4-week open-label, dose optimisation phase with Elvanse Adult (30, 50, or 70 mg/day in the morning), subjects were randomised to one of two treatment sequences: 1) Elvanse Adult (optimised dose) followed by placebo, each for one week, or 2) placebo followed by Elvanse Adult each for one week. Efficacy assessments occurred at the end of each week, using the Permanent Product Measure of Performance (PERMP). The PERMP is a skill-adjusted maths test that measures attention in ADHD. Elvanse Adult treatment, compared to placebo, resulted in a statistically significant improvement in attention across all post-dose time points, as measured by average PERMP total scores over the course of one assessment day, as well as at each time point measured. The PERMP assessments were administered at pre-dose (-0.5 hours) and at 2, 4, 8, 10, 12, and 14 hours post-dose.

Study 4 examined maintenance of efficacy. This study was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised withdrawal design study was conducted in adults aged 18 to 55 (n=123) who met DSM-IV criteria for ADHD. At study entry, subjects must have had documentation of treatment with Elvanse Adult for a minimum of 6 months and had to demonstrate treatment response as defined by CGI-S ≤3 and Total Score on the ADHD-RS with adult prompts <22. ADHD-RS with adult prompts Total Score is a measure of core symptoms of ADHD. Subjects that maintained treatment response at week 3 of open label treatment phase (n=116) were eligible to enter the double-blind randomised withdrawal phase, and received their entry dose of Elvanse Adult (n=56) or placebo (n=60). Maintenance of efficacy for subjects treated with Elvanse Adult was demonstrated by the significantly lower proportion of treatment failure (<9%) compared to subjects receiving placebo (75%) in the double-blind randomized withdrawal phase. Treatment failure was defined as a ≥50% increase (worsening) in the ADHD-RS with adult prompts Total Score and ≥2-point increase in the CGI-S score compared to scores at entry into the double-blind randomized withdrawal phase.

Paediatric population

The effects of lisdexamfetamine in the treatment of paediatric patients with ADHD have been demonstrated in three controlled trials in children aged 6 to 12 years, one controlled study in adolescents aged 13 to 17 years, and one controlled study in children and adolescents aged 6 to 17 years.

In study SPD489-325, 336 patients aged 6 to17 years were evaluated in a 7-week randomised double-blind, dose- optimised, placebo controlled with an active reference arm study. The primary efficacy assessment was the ADHD-RS- IV Total Score. lisdexamfetamine showed significantly greater efficacy than placebo. The difference at Endpoint in least square means reduction from baseline in the ADHD-RS-IV Total Score was 18.6 (p<0.001). At every on-treatment visit and at Endpoint the percentages of subjects who met pre-defined response criteria (a ≥30% reduction from Baseline in ADHD-RS-IV Total Score and a CGI-I value of 1 or 2) was significantly higher for lisdexamfetamine when compared to placebo (p<0.001). In addition, mean scores for ADHD symptoms following treatment discontinuation did not exceed baseline scores prior to treatment, indicating there was no rebound effect. In addition to a reduction in symptoms, lisdexamfetamine significantly improved functional outcomes. In this study, 75.0% of subjects receiving lisdexamfetamine showed “improvement” (defined as “very much improved” or “much improved”) on the CGI-I rating scale compared to 14.2% on placebo (p<0.001).

Similar results for ADHD-RS Total Score and CGI-I have been shown in two placebo controlled studies, one in children (n=297) and the other in adolescents (n=314), both conducted in the United States.

A double-blind, randomised, active-controlled, dose-optimisation study was conducted in children and adolescents aged 6 to 17 years (n=267) who met DSM-IV criteria for ADHD and also had an inadequate response to methylphenidate treatment. In this 9-week study, patients treated with lisdexamfetamine had a shorter time to first response compared to patients treated with atomoxetine (median 13.0 vs 21.0 days, respectively; p=0.003), where response was defined as having a CGI-I score of 1 (very much improved) or 2 (much improved) at any of the double-blind treatment visits.

Maintenance of effect was demonstrated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised withdrawal study conducted in children and adolescents ages 6 to 17 (n=157) who met the diagnosis of ADHD (DSM-IV criteria). Patients were optimised to open-label lisdexamfetamine for an extended period (at least 26 weeks) prior to entry into the 6-week randomised withdrawal period. Eligible patients were randomised to continue receiving their optimised dose of lisdexamfetamine or to switch to placebo. Patients were observed for relapse (treatment failure) during the 6-week double-blind phase. Treatment failure was defined as a ≥50% increase (worsening) in the ADHD-RS Total Score and a ≥2-point increase in the CGI-S score compared to scores at entry into the double-blind randomised withdrawal phase. Treatment failure was significantly lower for the lisdexamfetamine subjects (15.8%) compared to placebo (67.5%) (p<0.001). For the majority of subjects (70.3%) who were treatment failures regardless of treatment, ADHD symptoms worsened at or before the week 2 visit following randomisation.

Abuse liability studies

In a human abuse liability study, when equivalent oral doses of 100 mg lisdexamfetamine dimesylate and 40 mg immediate-release dexamfetamine sulphate were administered to individuals with a history of drug abuse, lisdexamfetamine dimesylate 100 mg produced subjective responses on a scale of “Drug Liking Effects” (primary endpoint) that were significantly less than dexamfetamine immediate-release 40 mg. However, oral administration of 150 mg lisdexamfetamine dimesylate produced increases in positive subjective responses on this scale that were comparable to the positive subjective responses produced by 40 mg of oral immediate-release dexamfetamine and 200 mg of diethylpropion.

Intravenous administration of 50 mg lisdexamfetamine dimesylate to individuals with a history of drug abuse produced positive subjective responses on scales measuring “Drug Liking”, “Euphoria”, “Amfetamine Effects”, and "Benzedrine Effects" that were greater than placebo but less than those produced by an equivalent dose (20 mg) of intravenous dexamfetamine.

Pharmacokinetic Properties

Absorption

After oral administration, lisdexamfetamine dimesylate is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract of healthy adults and children (6 to 12 years) with ADHD, thought to be mediated by the high capacity PEPT1 transporter.

Food does not affect the observed AUC and Cmax of dexamfetamine in healthy adults after single-dose oral administration of Elvanse Adult 70 mg capsules but prolongs Tmax by approximately 1 hour (from 3.8 hours at fasted state to 4.7 hours after a high fat meal). After an 8 hour fast, the AUCs for dexamfetamine following oral administration of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate in solution and as intact capsules were equivalent.

Distribution

In 18 children (6 to 12 years) with ADHD, the Tmax of dexamfetamine was approximately 3.5 hours following single- dose oral administration of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate either 30 mg, 50 mg, or 70 mg administered after an 8 hour overnight fast. The Tmax of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate was approximately 1 hour. Linear pharmacokinetics of dexamfetamine after single-dose oral administration of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate was established over the dose range of 30 mg to 70 mg in children aged 6 to 12 years.

Weight/dose normalised AUC and Cmax were 22% and 12% lower, respectively, in adult females than in males on day 7 following a 70 mg/day dose of lisdexamfetamine for 7 days. Weight/dose normalised AUC and Cmax values were the same in girls and boys following single doses of 30 - 70 mg.

There is no accumulation of dexamfetamine at steady state in healthy adults and no accumulation of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate after once-daily dosing for 7 consecutive days.

Biotransformation

Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate is converted to dexamfetamine and l-lysine, which occurs by metabolism in blood primarily due to the hydrolytic activity of red blood cells. Red blood cells have a high capacity for metabolism of lisdexamfetamine as in vitro data demonstrated substantial hydrolysis occurs even at low hematocrit levels. Lisdexamfetamine is not metabolised by cytochrome P450 enzymes.

Amfetamine is oxidised at the 4 position of the benzene ring to form 4-hydroxyamfetamine, or on the side chain α or β carbons to form alpha-hydroxy-amfetamine or norephedrine, respectively. Norephedrine and 4-hydroxy-amfetamine are both active and each is subsequently oxidised to form 4-hydroxy-norephedrine. Alpha-hydroxy-amfetamine undergoes deamination to form phenylacetone, which ultimately forms benzoic acid and its glucuronide and the glycine conjugate hippuric acid. Although the enzymes involved in amfetamine metabolism have not been clearly defined, CYP2D6 is known to be involved with formation of 4-hydroxy-amfetamine.

Elimination

Following the oral administration of a 70 mg dose of radiolabelled lisdexamfetamine dimesylate to 6 healthy subjects, approximately 96% of the oral dose radioactivity was recovered in the urine and only 0.3% recovered in the faeces over a period of 120 hours. Of the radioactivity recovered in the urine 42% of the dose was related to amfetamine, 25% to hippuric acid, and 2% intact lisdexamfetamine. Plasma concentrations of unconverted lisdexamfetamine are low and transient, generally becoming non-quantifiable by 8 hours after administration. The plasma elimination half-life of lisdexamfetamine typically averaged less than one hour in studies of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate in volunteers. The half-life of dexamfetamine is 11 hours.

Special populations

The pharmacokinetics of dexamfetamine is similar in children (aged 6 to 12) and adolescents (aged 13 to 17) ADHD patients, and healthy adult volunteers. Any differences in kinetics seen after oral administration are a result of differences in mg/kg dosing.

Systemic exposure to dexamfetamine is similar for men and women given the same mg/kg dose.

Formal pharmacokinetic studies for race have not been conducted. There is no evidence of any impact of ethnicity on the pharmacokinetics of Elvanse Adult.

In a pharmacokinetic study of 40 subjects (8 subjects in each of five renal functional groups: normal, mild impairment, moderate impairment, severe impairment, and end stage renal disease) dexamfetamine clearance was reduced from 0.7 L/hr/kg in normal subjects to 0.4 L/hr/kg in subjects with severe renal impairment (GFR 15 to < 30 mL/min1.73m2 or CrCl <30 mL/min).

In a study of 47 subjects aged 55 years of age or older amfetamine clearance was approximately 0.7 L/hr/kg for subjects 55 to 74 years of age and 0.55 L/hr/kg for subjects ≥75 years of age. This is slightly reduced compared to younger adults (approximately 1 L/hr/kg for subjects 18 to 45 years of age).

Preclinical Safety Data

Non-clinical abuse liability studies indicate that lisdexamfetamine can produce subjective effects in rats and monkeys that are similar to those of the CNS stimulant dexamfetamine, but that are delayed in onset and transient while the rewarding effects as determined in self-administration studies are lower than those of methylphenidate or cocaine.

In repeat dose toxicity studies the major findings were changes in behaviour, such as increased activity typical of stimulant administration, with associated reductions in body weight gain, growth measurements and food intake, considered to be a consequence of an exaggerated pharmacological response.

Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate was not genotoxic when tested in vitro in the Ames test and the mouse lymphoma assay or in vivo in the mouse bone marrow micronucleus test. Carcinogenicity studies of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate have not been performed. No evidence of carcinogenicity was found in studies in which d-, l-amfetamine (enantiomer ratio of 1:1) was administered to mice and rats in the diet for 2 years at doses of up to 30 mg/kg/day in male mice, 19 mg/kg/day in female mice, and 5 mg/kg/day in male and female rats.

Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate had no effect on embryofoetal development or survival when administered orally to pregnant rats at doses up to 40 mg/kg/day, and rabbits at doses up to 120 mg/kg/day.

No adverse effects on nervous system development or reproductive function were observed following repeat dose administration of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate to juvenile rats and dogs.

Amfetamine (d- to l-enantiomer ratio of 3:1) did not adversely affect fertility or early embryonic development in the rat at doses of up to 20 mg/kg/day.

A number of studies in rodents indicate that prenatal or early postnatal exposure to amfetamine (d- or d,l-) at doses similar to those used clinically can result in long-term neurochemical and behavioural alterations. Reported behavioural effects include learning and memory deficits, altered locomotor activity, and changes in sexual function. Similar studies have not been conducted for Elvanse Adult.

Pharmaceutical Particulars

List of Excipients

Microcrystalline cellulose.

Croscarmellose sodium.

Magnesium stearate.

Capsule shells

Gelatin.

Black ink (shellac and black iron oxide E172).

Capsule shell colourants:

30 mg: titanium dioxide (E171) and erythrosine (E127).

50 mg: titanium dioxide (E171) and brilliant blue FCF (E133).

70 mg: titanium dioxide (E171), brilliant blue FCF (E133) and erythrosine (E127).

Incompatibilities

Not applicable.

Shelf Life

3 years

Special Precautions for Storage

Do not store above 25°C.

Nature and Contents of Container

High density polyethylene bottle and a polypropylene child resistant cap with a foil inner seal.

Pack sizes: 28 or 30.

Not all pack sizes may be marketed.

Special Precautions for Disposal and Other Handling

Any unused medicinal product or waste material should be disposed of in accordance with local requirements.

Marketing Authorisation Holder

Shire Pharmaceutical Contracts Limited

Hampshire International Business Park

Chineham, Basingstoke

Hampshire RG24 8EP

UNITED KINGDOM

Marketing Authorisation Number(s)

PL 08081/0059-0061

Date of First Authorisation/renewal of the Authorisation

03/02/2015

Date of Revision of the Text

11/09/2015

Company Contact Details

Shire Pharmaceuticals Limited

http://www.shire.com

Address
Hampshire International Business Park, Chineham, Basingstoke, Hampshire , RG24 8EP

Medical Information Direct Line
0800 055 6614

Customer Care direct line
+44 (0)1256 894 107

Telephone
+44 (0)1256 894 000

Medical Information email
medinfoeuceemea@shire.com